Transition expression is recognised as unique and

Transition as a time of GrowthAlthough transitions may be challenging for TCKs, transition may too, also be a time of growth and not just existence (Lyttle, Baker & Cornwell, 2011; Pollock & Van Reken, 2009). While some TCKs may feel overcome by the process of transition others may experience minimal issues, so it is fair to say not all TCKs face the same concerns during transition (Thurston-Gonzalez, 2009).  However similar the TCK experience maybe, it is important to realize TCKs transitoning to their passport country will respond to his/her situation in different ways and have various outcomes. While transition may appear to be the same for each individual it is crucial each individual’s experience and expression is recognised as unique and different (Cottrell, 2007;  Moore and Bakers, 2011).Criticisms of TCK research Peterson and Plamondon (2009) acknowledge that psychological research on TCKs is limited. Szkudlarek (2009) builds on this idea suggesting that there is a growing need to understand the psychological, social and practical complications related to transition, due to the movement of people as a result of globalization. While Szkudlarek (2009) recognizes literature on repatriation is abundant, she believes research on cross-cultural re-entry remains essentially overlooked and stresses that it still remains undervalued and ignored.  Despite the fact that there have been extensive publications on the impact of cross-cultural transitions Szkudlarek (2009) also argues research exclusively concerning TCKs re-entry transitions remains limited. She expands on this by recognizing that much of the re-entry research is disjointed and does not always link to TCKs re-entry or rather TCKs repatriation which she feels more adequately describes re-entry. Lambiri (2005) has previously highlighted TCK research flaws, referring to the disconnection that often exists in intercultural research between data and investigations resulting from academia and that resulting from work in the field. Anecdotal research is increasing, compiled through social networking sites, TCKs biographies, and advocacy organizations (Downey 2012). Families in Global Transition (FIGT) are one example of a research network, which includes researchers from a variety of backgrounds and was formed to provide support, and research significant to families transitioning (http://www.figt.org). However, much of this TCK literature is anecdotal and not necessarily published in peer-reviewed journals. Lambiri (2005) draws attention to the fact, that while the authenticity of the TCKS actual experiences helps to clarify and explain significantly their experiences it is also important to recognize the role of meticulous research in advancing current knowledge further. More needs to be done on integrating the research on TCK (Tanu, 2008).Furthermore, existing literature regarding the TCK phenomenon essentially focuses on American TCKs (Hissano, 2015; Lambiri, 2005). Tanu (2008) expands on this suggesting the existing TCK research focuses on western culture. As a result of the westernization of intercultural research it can therefore make it difficult to apply it to all repatriating groups (Szkudlarek, 2009). However, major nonwestern research contributions to understanding the TCKs re-entry process and the re-acculturation of Japanese children are the studies of Yoshida et al., (2002); Podolsky, (2004); Kanno, (2000); Shimoyama, (2014) and Tamura & Furnham, (1993). Shimoyama (2014) recent studies focused on the social and psychological outcomes of Japanese returnees (Kikokushijo) and their struggles as they reentered Japanese society after their international experiences. The study highlighted the expectation of Japanese society to have shared cultural values and norms, with the lack of acceptance to any kinds of difference. Consequently, identifying how this can lead to the unease and confusion Japanese returnees experienced due to developing different cultural norms and practices growing up abroad.Lambiri (2005) recommends that future research should consider how to develop new approaches to intercultural research through comparing and contrasting different groups. However, when suggesting comparative studies to investigate the similarities and difference between TCKs from different countries Lambiri recognizes the obstacles and challenges in accessing such a widespread sample. Lambiri further suggests further research to test the theories that make up the TCK profile would essentially allow for deeper understanding of current trends to include:  impact of technology on TCKs communication; identity development; how TCKs apply their overseas experience to their future lives; what happens to TCKs during cultural adjustment and the strategies that work best to help individuals cope with the challenges of transition. Overall, the current literature advocates the importance of TCK research and the necessity of further study. It does however, highlight that gaps exist in TCK research and that there is a greater need to integrate the research. Essentially, by developing connections between data and field research the integration of TCK research will be ensured (Lambiri, 2005; Szkudlarek, 2009).SummaryTCKs are unique individuals who share common experiences and themes as a result of living globally mobile lifestyles. It is reasonable to assume that a TCK’s childhood will impact her/him throughout the rest of their life. For some TCKs a mobile lifestyle will have negative lasting effects (Pollack & Van Reken, 2009; Useem, 1993). However, for others it can be an extremely positive experience, providing individuals with greater opportunities to develop competencies necessary to successfully advance throughout their lives (Moore & Baker, 2011).Like other individuals TCKs share fundamental needs that assist their emotional/psychosocial development enabling them to become healthy, well–rounded and confident individuals. Just as the cultural and geographical experiences during a child’s developing years has a significant influence on individual’s identity development and well-being, so does their interpersonal relationships, psycho/social support, self confidence and emotional intelligence. While literature commonly acknowledges the positive advantages of a highly-mobile, multi-cultural upbringing, considerable focus remains on the difficulties such a lifestyle can have on individuals emotionally, socially and culturally.