To get a clear picture of the novel Sons and Lovers regarding literary
background I have added here some contexts.
1.2 Historical Context (1885-1910: England)
Lawrence’s novel begins in 1885 and ends in
1911, roughly following the outline of Lawrence’s
own life. During that time, British miners battled their capitalist bosses for
better pay and safer working conditions. However, large swings in demand for
coal contributed to industry instability, and it was common for miners’ unions
to be rewarded a raise one year and presented with a cut in salary the next. As
the rate of industrialization increased, so did the gap between rich and poor.
Nowhere was this gap more apparent than in the difference between how the
miners lived and how the owners of the mines lived. Lawrence’s father, on whom Walter Morel is
based, began working in the mines when he was ten years old. A typical week for
him consisted of six twelve-hour days, with only two paid holidays a year. This
historical perspective affected Lawrence’s
father conjugal life. Ultimately we find that this is reflected in the
1.3 Social Concerns
In Sons and Lovers, I also find some social concerns which are the
struggles of William and Paul Morel—two working class sons of a coal miner and
his socially and morally superior wife—to achieve maturity, financial
independence, and a sense of fulfillment in life. At the time of turning-of-the
century, England offered increased educational opportunities and the consequent
hope of upward social mobility for bright sons of the working class, but the
Morel boys are hindered in their efforts for a better life by the unhappy
marriage of their parents, which causes Mrs. Morel to have an overly possessive
love of her sons, a substitute for the marital love she lacks.
1.4 Housing Problem
Housing In the early 19th century, working class
house was appalling. It was overcrowded and unsanitary. The situation grew
worse as vast numbers of people lived together in small areas. In the 19th
century, towns spread to new parishes, and the commissioners had no power over
these new suburbs. There were no building regulations, and many houses were
‘back to backs.’ The Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875 allowed people to
demand working drains and lavatories, and prosecute people who sold food and
drink unfit for public consumption. In the 1870s, water supplies were created
in most towns. As a result of these measures, towns were much cleaner and safer
in the late 19th century. Comparatively the houses of working class people were
Industrialization has a great impact in the novel
especially on mother fixation. Industrialization has endowed the modern
civilization with rapid and much progress but at the same time it has snatched
away the vitality of life. As England
is the home ground of industrialization, she suffers much the sweet agony of
it. David Herbert Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers is an authentic document of the
English lower class life in the beginning of the twentieth century. In this
novel the mining people, their mental attitude, modes of life, habits and the
yells of their domestic joys and cares are depicted in an industrialized
society. Industrialization and its rigid moral codes enslave nature and
evaporate the sensual and aesthetic
needs of man. Factory life with its enforced confinement and long working hours
isolate man from the natural world, the true source of life force. Modern
industrial life perverts people. Under
the impact of industrialism and rapid urbanization human mind loses its
fertility, becomes barren as a desert. It profoundly affects the family life of
the lower class working people who work in coal mines. With the process of
industrialization and urbanization, extended families are breaking down and
kinship is declining. Industrialization has also become a tool in creating
mother fixation fueling the disintegration of family bonds as depicted in David
Herbert Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers.
1.6 Research Question
My research questions are
1. How does psychoanalytic
theory develop in the novel Sons and
2. Why mother fixation is
created and its effects on life.
I will explore and take an
attempt to prove the above questions in my Thesis.
I have not found the previous studies that directly
analyzed on the mother fixation or Oedipus complex which has been developed
between Gertrude Morel and her son Paul Morel in D.H.Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers. There are many kinds of
previous studies which have used Sons and Lovers as an object of
the study, these are as follows:
Aan Yuhaniz, the student of UIN Malang (2003), he
wrote “An Analysis on Paul Morel’s Personality Development in D.H. Lawrence’s
Sons and Lovers”. In his study, he analyzed what kind of personality of Paul
Morel as the major character of Sons and Lovers based on his period of
development and he applied Freudian theory. In his study, he found that Paul
Morel has the original personality as sensitive, quite, careful to other
people, cheerful, talented, temperamental, ambitious and cruel. Then those
personalities develop to be fearful, dependent, desire for achievement,
indecisive and friendly. All of Paul’s personalities are influenced by internal
factor (Paul’s ability) and external factors (father’s brutal manner, mother’s
possessive and ambitious, and social-economic class).
Utami, the student of STIBA Malang (1993), in her study “A Character Study on
Paul Morel in D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers Based on Freud
Psychoanalysis”, she analyzed the characterization of Paul Morel, the major
character of Sons and Lovers, based on Freudian approach. In her study,
she found the conclusion that Paul’s adult personality is fully determined by
interactions that took place when he had only limited control over his lives.
Lely Chandrawati, the student of STIBA Malang
(2001), in her study “A Study on Unnatural Mother’s Love Causing the Irony of
the Main Character’s Life in D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers”, she
analyzed the unnatural love of the major character’s mother and the effect on
the life of the other major character. She found that in Sons and Lovers,
Paul Morel as the major character has a mother that really loves him very much
and posses him very much.
I wrote this Thesis as the previous study does not
provide much information concerning with the relation between Paul Morel and
his mother. It is clear about the differences and a little bit of similarities
between the studies with my Thesis study. The difference is occurred in the
topic of the study. Here I will analyze the psychoanalytical theory and mother
fixation which are reflected in the novel Sons and Lovers, especially in
Paul Morel and in his mother. While, the similarities is taken place on the
theory (both of them use the Freudian theory)
Statement of the Problems
Based on what has been explained in the background
of the study, the research problems are formulated as follows:
1. Why does mother fixation happen in the character
of Paul Morel and her mother Gertrude Morel in Sons and lovers?
2. What kind of problem does it arise in
establishing personal career in the society?
Objectives of the Study
Based on the research problems above, I have tried
to reach out for objectives as it follows;
1. to know the mother fixation that happens in the
character of Paul Morel and her mother Gertrude Morel in Sons and lovers.
2. to know the problem that arises in establishing
personal career in the society in novel Sons
3. to explore the psychological problem.
The scope of my Thesis is
psychoanalytic theory, psychological problem and mother fixation that appear in
Sons and Lovers because these two are the most crucial factors in the
novel. The Thesis also concerns with the development of personal career of Paul
Morel as Morel fails to make any relation with other girls.
Apart from this discussion
there exist some critical issues to explore. As I have some restrictions and
limitations such as lack of time, financial crisis and unavailability of data
sources, I have left those issues to be explored by others.
Significance of the Study
I expect that this Thesis will bear a great significance
for study both theoretically and practically. Theoretically, this research is
important to describe and develop theoretical knowledge of literature about
mother fixation or Oedipus Complex that appears in Sons and Lovers.
Conducting this criticism, I also expect that it will be useful for other
students who need information about mother fixation. Practically, it is also
important to enrich knowledge about psychoanalytic criticism of novel. I hope
that this study can help the next researchers in studying how to analyze
fiction or literary work using psychoanalytic criticism.
The methodology of my Thesis paper is secondary
research. So this part presents and discusses the research method which
includes research design, data sources, data collection, and data analysis that
will be used in conducting this Thesis.
In conducting this Thesis, I will apply literary
criticism. This literary criticism is based on Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic
theory that appears in the mind of the characters especially in the mind of
Gertrude Morel and her son Paul Morel in the novel Sons and Lovers.
To conduct my Thesis paper I have taken help from
various kinds of sources such as journals, magazines, facebook, google,
encyclopedia, my own departmental seminar, university library (Jagannath University), and from the library of
other university. Besides I have taken help from the manuscript entitled Biography
of D.H. Lawrence that created by John Worthen, Professor of D H Lawrence
Studies at Nottingham.
I have collected data for this Thesis from the novel
Sons and Lovers. I have also collected data through my close friends.
Besides that, there are four steps that I have done; 1)
reading and understanding the text related to
the novel and the biography of the author;