Through the years child and adolescent development has changed overtime, thanks to new technology there has been more researcher and experiments to be able to test past psychologist development. Researchers are now creating more realistic experiment and researches to find different development in children, has adolescence continues to be a change through the years and it becomes difficult the wider of recognition that in biology is focused on young people development and adjustment to their behavior (National research council, 1999,). Due to the new research tools and new technology advances theories within adolescent’s development are now being supported by a scientific evidence more than it was in the past. (National research council, 1999,).
The five-theoretical perspective are influential theory and research on child development. The first theoretical perspective is Psychoanalytic two of the major theorist associated with the first theoretical is Freud with the psychosexual theory and Erikson with the psychosocial theory. According to Freud psychoanalytic was a “behavior that is controlled by a powerful unconscious urge” (Martoreal, G., Papalia, D., Feldman, R., 2014). That will innate factors and modified them due to experience that happen has they were growing up. To Freud it was a reactive individual and was stage oriented. But according to Erickson it was “a personality that was influenced by a society development through a series of cries” (Martoreal, G., Papalia, D., Feldman, R., 2014). It was a type of interaction that will innate and experiential on the development of the child it was active to the individual. Learning was the second Perspective. The major theorists associated with learning was Pavlov, Skinner Watson that focused on the behaviorism or traditional learning theory and Bandura that focused on social learning. According to the Behaviorism group learning was a people response to the environment control in behavior it emphasis with experience. But according to the social group children learn by observing other people and models that are active it there way of contributors to learning, it emphasis is by experience by innate factor.
Cognitive is the third perspective, the major theorists involved are Piaget’s with the cognitive stage theory, Vygotsky’s with the sociocultural theory and the information processing theory. Piaget believed that cognitive was the qualitative change that occurs during infancy and adolescence, how children will be active initiators of development, the emphasis is interaction with either innate and experiential factor. With Vygotsky sociocultural it was believing that cognitive was the social interaction that happens during development. And with the information theory it was known to be a human symbol of processing information its emphasis was interaction with innate and experiential. Number four Contextual the only major theorist involved with contextual was Bronfenbrenner with the bioecological theory. He believer that the development can only occur when the person has interaction with someone who is barley developing for example a child that has never been thought to talk or a new born baby an interlocking contextual system can influence a microsystem to chronosystem (Martoreal, G., Papalia, D,. Feldman, R,. 2014). Evolutionary/Sociobiological is the last perspective Evolutionary psychology by Bowlby’s attachment theory was the only major theorists associated with the last perspective. Bowlby believed that humans will adapted to the process when evolutionary and biological bases are involved in the development, it inquires interaction of innate and experimental factors due to the reason that it was important to their learning.