Three the use of renewable energy sources

Three
regulations are at the forefront when the European Union’s regulations on
renewable energy are examined. These are the developments in Electricity
Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in the Electricity Domestic Market
published on September 27, 2001. Directive of the European Parliament and of
the Council. The Directive requires Member States to specify targets for the purpose
of increasing the use of renewable energy sources in electricity generation and
the means they are planning to use or plan to achieve (Kantörün, 2010).

 

The
directive on the promotion of the use of biofuels and other renewable fuels in
the field of transport, issued by the European Parliament and Council on 8 May
2003, introduces regulations on the use of biofuels. It is envisaged that at
least 2% of all fuels sold in 2005 will be biofuels, and in 2010 this ratio
will increase to 7.5%. It is also aimed to replace 20% of fuels such as diesel
and gasoline with renewable energy sources (Kantörün, 2010).

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The
European Parliament and Council Directive, which includes the promotion of the
use of renewable sources of 23 April 2009, underlined that increasing the use
of renewable energy sources could make a significant contribution to the
reduction of greenhouse gas emissions under the United Nations Framework
Convention on Global Warming through the Kyoto Protocol (Kantörün, 2010).

 

The
Directive also aims to achieve the expected achievements in the field of
renewable energy until 2020. In this framework, it is aimed that 2020 of the
total energy production will be obtained from renewable energy sources, energy
efficiency will be increased by 20%, and 10% of the energy used in
transportation around the Union will be provided from renewable sources. Member
States are allowed to set their own national targets, provided that they remain
faithful to the Union-wide target, taking into account the resource and technology
differences of the member countries in the renewable energy sector with the aim
of achieving 20% ??of the total energy production from renewable energy
sources. For the purpose of transport, it is desirable that each member state
should remain faithful to the 10% target regardless of discrimination. The
targeted increase in energy efficiency is important in terms of increasing the
share of renewable energy sources in total energy production. Furthermore, in
order to achieve the stated objectives, member states are required to set up
their own national action plans, including policies to be pursued in order to
reach targets and sectoral targets in renewable energies (Kantörün, 2010).

 

Interdependence and Development of
Approach

 

The
most basic meaning in social sciences and interdependence is defined as “a
relationship in which the negative consequences and costs are roughly equal as
a result of a disruption of the relationship between two or more parties or a
reduction of the level of the relationship”. In the field of international
relations, Mutual Dependence is in the broadest sense that international actors
and factors influence each other in an important and mutual manner. First of
all, the difference of dependence is to express dependency, which is a form of
interaction in which a state’s foreign policy can be determined by another
state to a certain extent, whereas Interdependence refers to the way in which
this dependency applies to both sides. The difference between the Alliance
institutions is that mutually beneficial associations that produce only
positive outcomes for the parties are not considered within the framework of
the Mutual Addiction approach. If the freedom of movement of the parties is
limited to a certain extent in view of the costs, that is to say, a financial
confliction to obtain an interest within the two parties is called a Mutual
Dependence relation (Ba?ç?l, 2013).

 

Public
awareness plays an important role in promoting the use of renewable energy
resources. The European Union is engaged in various activities to raise public
awareness on renewable energy. One of the works carried out in this context is
the campaign for the expansion of the use of Renewable Energy Resources. It was
aimed to raise public awareness of renewable energy sources in the campaign
conducted between 2000-2003 and to establish a public that supports the use of
renewable energy sources. In addition to informing the public, community
programs are being developed to support and encourage renewable energy sources.
The ALTENER program is the first and basic program developed by the European
Union in this field. The first five years of the program was implemented
between 1992-2007 and the second five year period was implemented between
1998-2002. Following the completion of the program in 2002, in line with the
same targets, Smart Energy for Europe (2003-2006) program was established
(Kantörün, 2010).

 

Firstly,
states have become more dependent on each other in various fields, from
consumption goods to security. Secondly, in the face of economic and political
developments, the concept of sovereignty has changed, and the state’s
decision-making capacity has begun to erode. Finally, as the interaction
between them increases, they become more influenced by the changes taking place
on any corner of the world. Also, human rights, poverty, development,
environment and energy have begun to take place on the agenda of international
relations. The Mutual Dependence approach suggests that the weight of external
variables in international politics increases and that there is a socialization
in international relations in parallel (Ba?ç?l, 2013).