There are many effects of
heat transfer issues to our world. One of it include the rising of demand for
water usage during sweltering climate. According to Christopher, in a heat
waves, water is an extremely regular used to cool down the bridges and other
metal structures susceptible to heat failure. This causes serious shortages of
water supply in many affected areas. This additionally can add to flame
restraint issues for both urban and rural fire departments. On the other hand,
the rise in water temperature during heat waves will cause the degradation of
water quality and a lot of bad effects for fish and aquatic populations It can likewise prompt the death
or lop-sidedness of numerous different organisms in the lake, river and sea
ecosystem. High temperatures due to high heat released are also contributed to unlimited
algae growth, causing fish death in rivers and lakes. Thus, the extremely heat released
from industry area will contribute to water pollution. Besides, according to
Dan, the continuous of raising of heat also support to the more usage of energy
consumption. This because human will use more energy for cooling purpose to
withstand hot weather. Hence, the combustion of fossil fuels will become more
frequent due to the high demands and more heat will be generated to the environment.
Heat exchanger is one of the common heat
transfer application used in industry. Sadik (2002) stated that heat exchanger
is an efficient device constructed for the efficacious heat transfer between
two fluids with different temperatures. The material which are often used to isolate
the fluid is a solid wall which function to prevent mixing and in direct
contact between two fluids. Heat exchangers are commonly wide used in biochemical
processing industry, food processing industry, pharmaceuticals aspect, dairy
industry, chemical plants and also petroleum plants industry. The use of heat
exchangers in bioprocess industry is popular which is from high temperature
pasteurization to low temperature which is freezing.
Based on Padmakshi (2013), got some type of
heat exchangers which include shell and tube heat exchangers, plate heat
exchangers, plate & shell heat exchangers, plate fin heat exchangers,
dynamic scraped surface heat exchangers, phase change heat exchangers and
double pipe heat exchangers.
In fact, P. Raskovic (2010) mentioned that the basic principle of heat exchanger is only
involved the heat transfer between two fluids with different temperature. Both
two fluids are brought in close contact with each other but there are separated
from mixing by a physical barrier which like solid wall. The temperature of the
both two fluids will soon reach to an equilibrium temperature through the heat
transfer. The energy from each fluid is exchanged from the hot to cool media and
no heat generate which mean no extra heat is added or removed. The Heat
exchanger must be designed to suit for all the cases of heat exchange and the
performance also need to be the best suited for all conditions due to the not
constant of heat in the heat exchange process and the not constant of the heat
amount of the fluids. Furthermore, the design also need to be like the heat
exchange is at a particular rate required by the process. Originally, heat
exchangers are created and designed to be additional oversized for the cases of
fouling occur. The surface of heat exchanger is also needed to be additional large
for sufficiently substantial to carry out operations. For example, Heat
exchangers can be used in food industry as a process of cooling down various
products. Kravanja (2012).
Products such as hazelnut pastes and various types of food pastes also required
to be cooled down first or heated up before proceeding to the further process.
The type of Heat Exchanger used is a Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger. The
Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger is designed for processing various high
viscosity materials such as food and heat exchanging a variety of heat
sensitive products like fruit pulps.
Fouling of heat
exchangers in industries is a long term operational problem that compromises
energy recovery and environmental welfare. According to H. Muller (2009),
fouling in flow channels, tubes, or other parts in processing equipment may
create a lot of major operating problems such as loss of heat transfer,
under-deposit corrosion, increased pressure loss, and also flow
maldistribution. These problems may contribute many negative impacts on cost,
safety, health, and environmental aspects. Meanwhile for environment aspects,
fouling of heat exchangers will cause the increased of safety hazards released
during operation and cleaning, increased in the consumption of electricity,
water, fossil fuels, and other resources that are needed for cleaning,
increased environmental hazards and emissions. The environmental issues related
to the released of harmful chemical fouling inhibitors, method of disposal of
chemical wastes, CO2 emissions and land or water pollution
cause by operations of heat exchanger also have been pointed out.
Routbort et al.
(2009) stated that used nano?uids for industrial
cooling could result in good energy savings and resulting emissions reductions.
replacement of cooling and heating water with nano?uids has the more potential
to conserve energy. Furthermore, using nano?uids as agent in closed-loop
cooling cycles could also save more energy than using water as coolant. By this
way, the consumption of energy can be decrease efficiently, and less natural
sources will be used to generate energy. The
replacement of nanofluid also able to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide
oxides, and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from industry area. This can help to save environment
from the released of harmful gases and greenhouse gasses.
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(2010), Process integration in bioprocess industry waste heat recovery in yeast
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