There to reduce tree cutting in paper

There
are universal organizations trying to withstand human-caused deforestation. One
of their action is tree spiking which is inserting a metal rod at the base of
trees to prevent logger cuttings. This action also reduces the commercial value
of trees without affecting their health. Trees spiking might be effective to
reduce usage of trees for paper and wood-based energy production. However, to
make more comprehensive improvements, the forest especially containing many
endemic species needs to be preserved urgently. To prevent forest clearance due
to urbanization, population growth should be taken under control. To prevent
forest clearance to compensate wood-based energy consumptions, countries should
declare to use greener energies such as biogas immediately and palm oil should
not be accepted as biofuel anymore. Recycling should also be enhanced to reduce
tree cutting in paper industry. To overcome biodiversity loss resulting from
palm oil trade, some efforts need to be made 8. One of them is to plant palm
trees at various age classes to enhance habitat diversity for species. Another
one is putting appropriate signs onto the roads in order to prevent wild
animals’ death due to car hits. Monoculture plantation problem can be solved by
obtaining palm oil from smallholders because they cultivate other crops such as
pineapple, sugarcane, banana, and corn. This practice increases the
sustainability of palm oil cultivation. Applying biological pest control
mechanisms rather than using pesticides, which further decreases species
diversity, can also be a solution to palm oil cultivation based biodiversity
loss.Deforestation
results in erosion and altered rainfall patterns. Erosion occurs because plants
and trees that can hold soils’ water have gone. By erosion, soil nutrients are
carried into water bodies. This nutrient-rich environment results in a higher
growth rate of algae in the water. After a while, they die and decomposers use
dissolved oxygen to decompose them. As a result, the dissolved oxygen level of
water has decreased, and fish habitat gets affected and might go extinct 10.
Soil erosion carries salt into water bodies, too. This also affects species
adversely. Rainfall patterns have changed because evapotranspiration rate
decreases due to forest loss. As a result, deforested regions become arid.Deforestation
also changes radiation flux 1. Trees use solar radiation for photosynthesis
and create shaded parts on which some species live. Loss of trees leads to loss
of shaded places and increased soil temperature which may alter the nutrient
cycles. Both results in species loss.Deforestation
leads to increased carbon emissions, too. It is estimated that tropical
deforestation is responsible for one-tenth of total anthropogenic carbon
emissions 15. Because plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, they take
up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and reduces the carbon dioxide amount of
atmosphere. When they are cut and deforestation has occurred, carbon dioxide
uptake is reduced and its amount in the atmosphere increases. Because carbon
dioxide is a greenhouse gas, its increased emission leads to temperature
increase. Increased temperature facilitates the spread of diseases which affects
the survival of species besides habitat loss caused reductions in the number of
species.

Australia
might be given as the best example to deforestation-coupled problems. The
country is loosing its forest areas since European colonization and it has lost
40% of its forest area up to date 16. High deforestation resulted in average
1oC increase in temperature. There is also evidences that rainfall
pattern has changed and drought seasons become more severe.  Urbanisation
is one of the main reasons for loss of biodiversity through deforestation. Most
of the species are not well adapted to human-caused environmental alterations 6.
Sol et al. (2014) investigated this relationship through bird communities and
concluded that biodiversity loss occurs because of the low tolerance of species
to urbanization 7. The tolerance is directly correlated with the life history
of species.Mining
practices also lead to deforestation. The ranges of deforestation due to mining
is not restricted to the mining area. There are also deforestations due to the
workplace, urbanization to supply workforce and transport roads. Sonter et al. (2017)
states that mining resulted in 11,670 km2 forest loss which
corresponds to 9% of all Amazon forests between 2005 and 2015 in Amazon 13.

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Palm
oil sector is another main driver of deforestation. There is a growing trend
for palm oil sector because it is used as an ingredient for diverse products
such as food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals 9. Tropical forests are rich in
species diversity due to moderate climate conditions; however, they are
disturbed by palm oil sector nowadays. According to Malaysian Palm Oil
Board(MBOP), plantation area in Malaysia has increased from 4.5 M ha in 2008 to
5.39 M ha in 2014 10. The problem in this sector is not only the exchange of
forest-specific plants with palm trees and monoculture plantation but also the
roads constructed by clearing the forest in order to collect palms.