The of identifying in a large population

research method used in this study is quantitative research methodology.
Specifically, cross-sectional survey research was used to study the
relationship between work environment factors and transfer of training in
manufacturing sector. According to Lavrakas (2008), cross-sectional surveys
have been described as snapshots of the populations about which they gather
data. The questionnaires will be distributed to respondent for collecting the
required data. A qualitative questionnaire approach for data collection
procedure preferred in this study because of the appropriateness of identifying
in a large population from a small group of individuals and the minimal time
required to collect data (Lisa, 2008). Thus, it is much efficient approach due
to the short timeframe in conducting the research.


3.3       Population,
Sample and Sampling Procedure

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are many type of manufacturer at Kuching, Sarawak such as foundry, electronic
parts supplier, food products supplier, tool and steel fabricator. The target
population in this research are employees in manufacturing sector which is food
products supplier (beverage manufacturing company) that located at Kuching,
Sarawak. The sample size in this research is 105 respondents. The selecting
size of sample for this study is based on previous research that found the

desired sample size was determined by following the recommendations proposed by
Benson and Nasser (1998), they suggested factor analysis requires a minimum of
five subjects per independent variable to assure adequate statistical power and
generalizability of results.” (Mengyuan, 2015, p. 39).

first section of instrument which items stated independent variables contained
21 items, hence the minimum sample size needed is 105. Simple random sampling
method will be use so that enables each employee from different category has an
equal chance to be chosen and will minimizes the bias of the study. The
respondents would be selected randomly from employees at non-executive level
that consisting of operation category and non-exempt category in both technical
career path and non-technical career path to complete the questionnaire.


3.4       Instrument

will used as the instrument of this research to collect data and measure
independent and dependent variables. The questions inside the questionnaire are
adapted from Ikramullah (2007 as cited in Mengyuan, 2007, p71-76). Based on
Mengyuan (2015), the questions inside the questionnaire were designed carefully
so that all the possible aspects of every independent variable can be take into

questionnaire consisted of 31 items that covered the selected work environment
factors in Section A and transfer of training in Section B, and also the
demographic information part in Section C. The number of items for every
independent variable, that stated in Section A is as follows: Supervisor
Support (8 questions), Peer Support (7 questions) and Opportunities to perform
(6 questions). Meanwhile, the number of items for dependent variable, transfer
of training stated in Section B is 10 questions.

Section A and Section B, the 31 items constructed in close-ended statement will
be evaluating by using five-point Likert Scale. The respondents need to rate
items by using the five-point Likert Scale is shown in the table below:







Strongly Disagree


Neither Agree


Strongly Agree

Table 2: Five-point Likert Scale


The last part of the questionnaire consisted the
demographic information of respondent. Demographic information includes items
relating to gender, age, qualification and frequency of training program in a





3.5       Validity
& Reliability

            The reliability and validity of the
questionnaires is will be tested and determined by conducting a pilot test. The
selected manufacturing plants will be choose to conduct the pilot study and the
selected manufacturing plant have to be the same manufacturing plants which
will be using for actual research. Thirty sets of first version questionnaire targeted
to be send to the selected manufacturing plants. The questionnaires will be return
back in 10 sets and the usable of the questionnaires are 100%. The test has to be
conducted to confirm that respondents are clear and understand the questions inside
the questionnaires. The researcher need to find out any question that the
tested employees thought was hard to understand so the researcher can improve
the questionnaire.  Besides, the
ambiguity due to grammar mistakes can be avoid.

is referred to the positivism and strength of the findings that has been gathered
during the research survey. Meanwhile, reliability is referred to consistency
among items inside the questionnaire.  Based
on Rusli, Hasbee, Azman, Sopian and Nur (2014), “both aspects are important to
securing a valid and sound data for producing good research findings”. The validity
and reliability will be measured by using latest version of SPSS. The
reliability will be measured by referring to Cronbach’s Alpha value (?). The
variable in this research will be considered good if the Cronbach’s Alpha value
(?) is 0.70 and above. The Table 2 below is about Cronbach’s Alpha range that
shows level of reliability and coefficient alpha range.


3: Cronbach’s Alpha Range

Level of Reliability

Coefficient Alpha Range

Poor reliability

Less than 0.60

Fair reliability


Good reliability


Very good reliability


                                                                                    Source: Sekaran and Bougie (2010)

additional changes and final version of questionnaire will be created. Final
version of questionnaire will be used to collect data in present of the

3.6       Ethics
of the Study

to ethical and confidentially consideration in this research, all of
information obtained from respondents will kept confidential. Personal aspects
are very important in research ethics and all personal information must not be
disclosed. While conducting research work, the researchers must pay attention
about ethical consideration as action research is carried out in involving open
and close communication among the people and real-world situations (Rusli, et
al., 2015). Respondents do not need to fill his or her name in the
questionnaire to kept respondent’s identity confidential. Brief instructions
and purpose of the study are stated on the cover of the questionnaire to ease
respondents answering every section of the questionnaire. A part from that, to
protect the interest and great deal of researcher and respondents, a note of
confidentiality are included too on the cover of questionnaire.



3.7       Data
Collection Procedure

are few procedure for collecting data. A cover letter about acquiring
permission for data collection will be send along with a copy sample of
questionnaire to the selected industrial sites. After getting the permission
from the industrial sites, a consent letter from UNIMAS will be apply and once
consent letter approved, the researcher will take a visit and distribute the
questionnaire. A total of 105 questionnaires will be distributed randomly to
the respondent from non-executive level employees (operation category and
non-exempt category) in the industrial site. The selected sample were given
approximately 7-10 minutes for answering the questions. All of questions
consisting Section A, B and C need to be answered. For Section A and B the
respondent required to circle the appropriate number in indicator suitable with
the respondent’s agreement toward each statement regarding on selected work
environment factors and transfer the training on their real job, while for the
Section C, the respondent were required to tick for the appropriate choice in
the space provided.



3.8       Data
Analysis Procedure

data analysis procedure was carried out by using Statistical Package of the Social
Science (SPSS) in the latest version. The collected data was analyzed based on
descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was
used to analyze respondents’ demographic information by using mean and standard
deviation. Demographic information of respondent are includes gender, age,
qualification and frequency of training program in a year. The information
obtained through the analysis was showed in frequency and percentage and will
be presenting in tables and charts.

statistics will be used to analyze relationship between independent variable
and dependent variable for this research. Pearson Correlation Test will be used
to determine the relationship between supervisor support and transfer of
training, the relationship between peer support and transfer of training and
the relationship between opportunities to perform and transfer of training. Moreover,
Multiple Regression Test will be used to determine the dominant factor among
the factors of work environment in affecting transfer of training.