The engage actively in leaning it and

The status of English as the world’s most
preferred lingua franca, it has become one of the crucial languages should be
mastered in this global era. Writers support to this statement; (Zhiping & Pramasivan,
2013),
Efrizal (2012), (Yee & Abidin, 2014), (Leong & Ahmadi, 2017).  Nevertheless,
mastering English is not an easy task (Alharbi, 2015). It needs a big effort and strong power to do (Ghiabi: 2014).
It is assumed that language is best learnt when students actively use it the
classroom (Mart, 2013). Frankly speaking, student will
be able to master English well
when they are engage actively in leaning it and use it in the classroom. Yet,
triggering students’ engagement actively in my speaking class was the big
problem that I encountered. For this, it effects my students’ speaking
achievement that is considered low and the class was not interesting.

Along my five years teaching experience in speaking
subject I was wondered by my students for most of them kept silent in my
speaking class. And I used to ask to my students “This is a speaking class,
right?” and they always answered “Yes”. “Then, what should you do in the
speaking class? Again they answered, “Speaking”. They know what should they do
but they don’t want to do that. So what was the matter? This is my big question
from year to year of teaching speaking in the first years in my institution.  And I couldn’t stand on this situation. I
began to evaluate my previously teaching practice through observing erring the
previously semester students’ speaking achievement. For the students’
achievement was still unsatisfied, I decided to do an action that could boost
my students’ speaking ability. Starting from conducting an interview and giving
the students a pre-test I began to execute my action. Figure 1 shows the
students’ speaking achievement that was gathered from the pre-test.

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 The
result of students’ pre-test was very disappointed. For this reason, then I
make some reflection on my teaching practice. I also discussed with my
colleague in order to find the best solution for my big problem. When I asked
her what should I do on my speaking class so that my students are willing to
speak up, she just simply said “Give them lots of task”. Therefore as the
lecturer I was challenged to do a research on my speaking class. I took the
second semester of English Department students of Universitas Suryakancana in
the academic year of 2016/2017 as the subject of the research. There were 28
students as the participants.

 

1.            
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     The nature of speaking

 Naturally, language is speaking. Understanding
a language is commonly defined as an ability to understand and speak the
language. Speaking is the ability used by a person on daily communication.
Speaking is a tool to express, share, communicate one’s idea, opinion, desire,
or feeling to another (Shahrestanifar and Rahmy, 2014. p. 147). Efrizal (2012)
adds the definition of speaking “that speaking is one of the ways to manifest
what is in one’s mind orally”. Meanwhile, Derakhshan, Khalili, and Behesthi (2016)
define speaking as a productive ability that involves two core categories;
accuracy and fluency. Accuracy involves the accuracy of vocabulary, grammar,
and pronunciation. While fluency deals with the ability to keep speak in
spontaneous setting. The last definition comes from Juhana (2012. p.100) that
speaking is a process of building and sharing meaning by the use of verbal and
non-verbal symbols, in many different contexts. It purposes to communicate
either transactional or interactional to serve a message.

1.2.      
Factor influencing speaking learning

As English is used as a tool for
international communication, mastering it either written or spoken is a must
recently especially for the English department student. There are many studies
claim that of the four language skills, speaking is consider as the most
difficult skill faced by the students compared with the other three; reading,
writing and listening such as (Tuan & Mai, 2015), (Adriana, Melendez, Gandy,
Zavala, & Mendez, 2014), (Ahmed & Alamin, 2014), (Derakhshan, Khalili,
& Beheshti, 2016), and (Mirhadizadeh, 2016). There are some factors that influence speaking
learning; psychology (motivation, anxiety, shy, fear, and lack of confidence).
Some studies proved that anxiety effects second language mastery; Naci
dan Hasan (2013), (Arnold, 2011), (Tuan & Mai, 2015). The second factor is linguistic factor (vocabulary,
grammar, fluency, and accuracy) (Mahripah, n.d).  Mastering
speaking of other language/foreign language is not an easy task for both
teacher and student (Alharbi, 2015).  This condition
also faced by my students. Therefore the precise teaching method is needed to
crack the difficulties in speaking then enabling the students to improve their
speaking ability.

 

2.3     Community Language Learning Method

          Community Language Learning is a
teaching method that can be used for teacher, lecturer, or language
practitioners to stabling students’ confidence and motivation as well as in
this case improving their speaking ability. Community Language Learning is one
of recommended teaching methodologies in language setting. It is labeled as
‘humanistic’ methodology which involves psychological aspect and students work
together to develop what skill of a language they would like to learn. This
method firstly developed by Charles A. Curran and his association which the
characterized as Counseling-Learning theory where the teacher has a function as
a counselor and the teacher as the client. This method emphasis on process and
on the uniqueness and wholeness of the person and integrated the personality of
the learners into the educative process. For Curran as it stated by (Chimombo, 1993) views all learning as
progressing over five stages paralleling five stages of human development;
first stage was called as an embryo; the second stage was foetus, then birth
stage, adolescence, and adulthood. In language learning, stage 1 is a stage in
which the learner (client) knows nothing totally depend on the teacher (counselor)
knows everything. Then a bit little she/he grew became an independent learner.
In this stage the learner being increasingly able to say what she/he wants
using her/his native language over the counselor’s help translating the
utterance into target language. There is a basic different between stage 3 and
4 which the client resent of the utterance correctly and the counselor’s role
is to correct the inappropriate utterances.

Six procedures
are recommended in teaching Community Language Learning Method; recording the
students’ speaking, transcribing students’ speaking, reflection on experience
in learning process, reflective listening, self-correction and small group task
(Nagaraj, 2009).     

There are many
researchers discovered that Community Language Learning method  is an appropriate way to help students in
learning language especially in improving speaking ability including the work
of Fayed (2016). Fayed called Community Language Learning as an approach of
teaching, hence he used the term CLLA stands for Community Language Learning
Approach. His research finding revealed that Community Language Learning is
effective in improving the students’ speaking skill. Nevertheless, he reminded
that Community Language Learning should be used appropriately in the classroom
regarding to the students’ intensive participation in all class activities.
Further evidence in support Fayed’s finding was Fatemi and Adel’s investigation
on their study. Having analyzed the data gathered by giving questioner to 91
EFL learners and 34 MA and PhD EFL teachers from five English Departments of
Islamic Azad University on their perceptions and expectations on the most
effective method of language teaching at university level statistically using
SPPS software, the result revealed that Community Language Learning was
considered as the most effective teaching method. Yet, it was reminded that
syllabus designers, policy makers as well as language teachers should be aware
of the effective methods in an EFL context and be more selective in their
design. (Nurhasanah, 2015.) reveals further reason why
Community Language Learning Method is effective method in language leaning. The
research stated that students’ participation increased not only their
conversation but also their motivation in speaking class. For these their
speaking ability also improved.  Widiastuti’s research undertaken in 2012 found that
CLL method could improve the speaking ability in the aspects of pronunciation,
fluency, vocabulary, grammar as well as content. Another researcher, (Pujasari, 2014) concluded that Community
Language Learning in an effective method in teaching speaking to the second
grade students of Stikes Bakti Tunas Husada, Tasikmalaya in the academic year
2011/2012. She also reminded that in the implementation of CLL method, a
teacher must consider about the students’ level of confidence.

From the four
studies that were cited as previously research in can be seen that CLL method
was successfully used as the base theory in conducting a research. And this
method will be connected with the process of doing this current research based
on the research focus that has been determined by the researcher. Therefore
this paper is a part of my dissertation highlights on how the teacher’s
competence as the facilitator in the speaking class can improve students’
speaking ability that is represented on the students’ improvement in their
speaking achievement.

Having
administered a pre-test before the action and post-tests; post-test 1,
post-test 2, and post-test 3, then comparing the average scores of each test,
this presents study was aimed at investigating the implementation of Community
Language Learning methodology in speaking class. The paramount purpose was to
show the improvement of 27 students’ speaking ability of the second semester of
English Department in Cianjur in the academic year 2016/2017 by the
implementation of Community Language Learning methodology in speaking class.

 

2.            
METHOD

This current study is based on the classroom
action research. The model of the study in this research was taken from (Ferrance, n.d.) in Bassou, (2016. p. 93). Experts sound the term of
action research differently  such as (Carr, 2006) term it as a methodology, (Deemer, 2009) call it as an authentic process of a methodology, Hein
(2009) use “change”, while  (Koshy, 2005) and Bassou (2016), (Hine, 2013) call it as inquiry, discipline inquiry, and  reflective inquiry respectfully.  (Creswell, 2012) stated that:

“Action
research designs are systematic procedures used by teachers
(or other individuals in an educational setting) to gather quantitative and
qualitative data to address improvements in their educational setting, their
teaching, and the learning of their students. In some action research designs,
you seek to address and solve local, practical problems, such as a
classroom-discipline issue for a teacher. In other studies, your objective
might be to empower, transform, and emancipate individuals in educational
settings”.

 

This research was adapted from Ferrance’s
cycle model. Three cycles were conducted which involve six steps in this
modeling method of the research namely: identification of the problem,
gathering data, interpreting data, acting on evidence, evaluating the result,
and next steps applied in in each cycle. Visually, the phases can be seen in
Figure 1