The due to moto vehicle accident, interpersonal

The sign and symptoms of dentoalveolar fractures are lip
bruises and laceration, step deformity, bony discontinuation, fracture and
subluxation of the teeth and laceration of the gingiva. It classified into:

                I)
Dental Hard issue Injury

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                It is
crown fracture that involves or not involve root. It occurs as a result of
direct trauma or by impaction from opposing tooth. Clinical and radiograph
examination able to determine the degree of tooth damage. Usually anterior
teeth fracture due to direct impact while posterior tooth fracture due to
impaction opposing tooth.

                ii)
Periodontal injury

                Force
that distribute over several teeth may cause soft tissue injury. The teeth may
result concussion, subluxation, intrusion, displacement and avulsion. The
loosening and displacement of the teeth is high risk of pulp necrosis. If the
fracture of root involved, late complication may cause the tooth resorption,
canal obliteration, ankyloses and loss of alveolar bone.

                iii)
Alveolar Bone injury

                Alveolar
mandibular bone fracture is associated with complete fracture of tooth-bearing
areas while in maxilla is usually isolated injury. 

 

2. Mandibular Fracture

General sign and symptoms of mandibular fracture are
swelling, pain, drooling, tenderness, body discontinuity, laceration, limited
mouth opening, ecchymosis, bleeding from mouth and fracture, subluxed, luxated
teeth.  The type of mandibular fracture
are simple, compound, communited and pathological. Simple is a closed linear
fractures of condyle, coronoid, ramus and edentulous of the body of mandible.
Compound is fracture of tooth bearing portion of mandible that involve
periodontal membrane and skin. Communited is compound fractures that same as
fragmentation of bone. Pathological is the result from weakened mandible that
cause by pathological condition. The causes of mandibular fractures usually are
due to moto vehicle accident, interpersonal violence, sport, industrial trauma
and falls. Site of mandibular fracture are:

                i)
Fracture of the body

                The
sign and symptoms are swellings, pain, tenderness, step deformity, anesthesia and
paranesthesia of lip and intraoral hemorrhage.

                ii)
Symphyseal fracture

                Sign
and symptoms are tenderness, sublingual hematoma, loss of tongue control and
soft tissue injury to the chin and lower lip.

                iii)
Fracture of Ramus

                Sign
and symptoms are swelling, ecchymosis, pain and trismus.         

                iv)
Fracture of Angle

                Sign
and symptoms are swelling, posterior gag, deranged occlusion, anesthesia of
lower lip, hematoma, step deformity behind last lower molar and tenderness.

                v) Coronoid
fracture

                Sign
and symptoms are tenderness, pain, step deformity, sublingual hematoma, loss of
tongue control and may have soft tissue injury to the chin and lower lip

                vi)
Condylar Fracture

Unilateral fracture – swelling over TMJ, hemorrhage from ear
on the affected side, Battle’s sign, locked mandible, hollow over the condylar
region after edema has subside, deviation of mandible to the affected side upon
opening and painful limitation of movement.

Bilateral fracture- the sign and symptoms also same with
unilateral condylar fracture with limitation mouth opening, restricted
mandibular movement and anterior open bite.