TASK and incorporated business process and requirements

TASK 1

 

In Database,
there are three (3) Data Models which is Conceptual, Logical and Physical. The
first Data Model called Conceptual is defined as a business need within the
defined scope. The second Data Model called Logical is defined as a
comprehensive business solution. Last but not least, Physical Data Model which
is a complete technical solution. Additionally, there are two modelling
approaches which is Relational and Dimensional.

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Relational
approach defined as the process of how to get the business works through
precisely represent business rules. Dimensional approach defined as the process
of how to get the business to be monitored through precisely represent business
route.

 

The table below
shows the three levels of Data Models including the two approaches:

 

Table
1 Data Models Including Approaches

 

 

CONCEPTUAL DATA MODEL

 

The first data
model is Conceptual data model which is a one-page data model that shows the
business needs and project scope where it is created for a particular audience.
It is important for this model to be limited to one-page as it drives the
modeler and participants to select key concepts. The benefits to the businesses
are as follows:

 

1.    
Conveys
a Comprehensive Understanding

This model shows complex and incorporated business process and
requirements to a one-page that enables the user to understand and convey with
each other on the same concept.

 

2.    
Explains
Scope and Direction

The concepts will be shown visually whereas the business rules may determine
a subset of the model to be studied effectively and it will also provide
direction on the new functional requirements that business needs in the future.

 

3.    
Hands-on
Analysis

Critical
issues may be identified on developing a high-level understanding of the
application where it will save great amount of money and time.

 

The followings
are the Conceptual data model in Relational and Dimensional approaches figures.

 

 

Figure
1 Conceptual data model: Relational approach

 

Figure
2 Conceptual data model: Dimensional approach

 

LOGICAL DATA MODEL

 

The second data
model is Logical data model which is a solution to a business problem. The
model will be created once the business requirements understood where it
consist of attributes and business rules needed. In other words, Logical data
model will provide the details for the Conceptual data model.

 

In Logical data
model, it has two (2) techniques in order to build Relational approach:

 

1.    
Normalization

The
process of using set of rules with the scope of organizing.

 

2.    
Abstraction

It brings flexibility to data models where it redefines and combines
certain attributes, entities and relationships to general terms.

 

Another approach
for Logical data model is Dimensional approach. One of the unique terms in
Dimensional approach is Meters which is a container of common measures. There
are four types of Meters as follows:

 

1.    
Summarization

2.    
Atomic

3.    
Accumulating

4.    
Snapshot

 

The followings
are the Logical data model in Relational and Dimensional approaches figures.

 

 

 

 

Figure
3 Logical data model: Relational approach

 

 

 

Figure
4 Logical data model: Dimensional approach

 

PHYSICAL DATA MODEL

 

The last data
model is Physical data model which is the technical solution once the business
solution understood. The Logical data model converted to database design or
Physical data model that has tables and attributes.

 

The followings
are the inputs for the Physical data model:

 

1.    
Tables
created by the Logical data model

2.    
Business
Environment Requirements

3.    
Data
Characteristics

4.    
Application
Characteristics

5.    
Operational
Requirements

6.    
Hardware
and Software Characteristics

 

The Physical data model has two categories
in design techniques:

 

1.    
The
Physical design which do not alter the Logical design

2.    
The
Physical design which alter the Logical design

 

The followings
are the Physical data model in Relational and Dimensional approaches figures.

 

Figure
5 Physical data model: Relational approach

 

 

Figure
6 Physical data model: Dimensional approach

 

 

TASK 2

 

In order to make
the comparison of the Database Technologies, I have selected:

 

1.    
Oracle

2.    
Microsoft
SQL Server

3.    
MySQL

 

ORACLE

 

The Oracle
Corporation have developed an Oracle Suite which marketed for major Operating
Systems – Windows, Linux, Unix and etc. It is a complete package of software
development tools to manage Information System specifically built for Oracle
database.

 

Below are advantages
for the Oracle database:

 

1.    
Appropriate
for huge organization that deals with larger database.

2.    
Excellent
for distributed and object databases

3.    
Leading
Database Management System

4.    
Capable of
handling complex databases which has different objects through a complete
system catalog

5.    
It
provides interaction with other databases

 

 

 

Below are disadvantages
for the Oracle database:

 

1.    
The module
called SQL *Plus does not provide Graphical User Interface (GUI)

2.    
Requires number
of steps of creating a database unlike common DBMS

3.    
Quite expensive
for small and medium enterprises

4.    
The Oracle
Form Builder is not user friendly

5.    
Too many
splinter components that could be merged

 

MICROSOFT SQL
SERVER

 

The Microsoft
Corporation have developed Microsoft SQL Server which implemented from
Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Object-Relational Database
Management System (ORDBMS) specifications. This software available in Graphical
User Interface (GUI) as well as command based that supports SQL language.

 

Below are advantages
for the Microsoft SQL Server:

 

1.    
It saves time
in development and troubleshooting

2.    
Easy to
set up

3.    
Leading products
of Microsoft and documentation can be found easily

4.    
Memory
optimized table available

5.    
XML
support

 

 

 

Below are disadvantages
for the Microsoft SQL Server:

 

1.    
Quite costly
to set up

2.    
Developed specifically
for Microsoft ecosystem

3.    
The new
updates usually distributed in two years cycle

4.    
Latest and
new features required big investment

 

MYSQL

 

The most popular
Database Management System (DBMS) and rapid in the industry is MySQL where known
for their speed, scalability, reliability and it’s free which makes it popular
choices for a higher-cost and complex DBMS suites.

 

Below are advantages
for the MySQL:

 

1.    
The open
source version has number of features whereas the Enterprise edition required yearly
subscription

2.    
Useful features
– Tooling support with workbench

3.    
PHPMYADMIN
is quite useful and user friendly

4.    
Most
platforms have connection drivers for MySQL

 

Below are disadvantages
for the MySQL:

 

1.    
A lot of
choices available which makes it difficult to select

2.    
Extensive
tooling support only available for Enterprise edition

3.    
Inconsistency
issues exist between different version

4.    
It has
limited features as compared to Microsoft SQL Server

 

The following are the table of comparison between Database
Technologies:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table
2 Database Technologies comparison

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TASK 3

 

In Database Design Strategy, there are two approaches
available which is Top-down and Bottom-up approach. The Top-down approach usually
for developing a system from zero or scratch where it starts from the requirement
analysis.

 

The Bottom-up approach is for existing database
system that needs to be incorporated according to the objective of the design where
it starts from local Conceptual data model to global Conceptual data model. The
most important process in this approach is to decide on how to incorporate the
multiple databases.

 

Figure
7 Top-down and Bottom-up approaches sequence

 

Within the
database design, there are also two philosophies which is Centralized and
Decentralized that depends of the factors. The Centralized philosophy usually
for small objects and procedures where it can be developed by one person and
small team. This usually involves simple and small database that the scope is
limited which enough for a one designer to define the problems and develop
Conceptual design.

The Decentralized
philosophy is the opposite of the Centralized philosophy where it’s for larger entities
and has complex relations and operations to be performed. It cannot be done by
one person. It requires highly-skilled database designers to be recruited. The deign
tasks usually divided into number of modules. The lead designer will verify the
combined conceptual model once all modules have been developed. The figures
below show the Centralized and Decentralized philosophies.

 

Figure
8 Centralized Design Philosophy

 

Figure
9 Decentralized Design Philosophy

 

As for the scenario
given, the Top-down approach is the most suitable design approach where it
deals with number of customers and it requires highly secured environment as it
involves monetary transaction. The most suitable philosophy is Decentralized
philosophy as it requires highly skilled database designers and large team.