Table of contents
What is groupthink? ——————————————————–
Symptoms of groupthink
Benefits and danger of groupthink
Scope of groupthink ——————————————————–
any successful project or work a decision maker should have whole information
from all areas which affects the decision for the best and good decisions. So,
for the good and better results of any task or project, groups are formed and a
group generally comprised the two or more individuals. In group, members have
shared goal so, they work on single task and goal collectively (Wilcox C. (2010).
In group work all members may think same or may be differently however, members
from different departments share their knowledge freely what they know, it
helps the team to get better work and results and huge amount of mistakes also
will be avoided. Groupthink have two types outcome if group members work in harmony
and collectively in terms of positive ideas then its results will get
definitely positive while other types of group who do not think in harmony or
they think in terms of negativity then it leads to negative results (Cass R. sunstein and hastie R. (2015). For instance, India is the diverse
country and there different religious people live and every religion people
have different believes and morals however, some dominating religion people
thinks negative and they hates the other religion people like Sikhs community
do not like the Muslim and their consequences lead to conflict between them
which is not good. On the other hand, example in terms of positive groupthink
is from the movie Argo it is true life based story, in this movie by positive
thinking group work people were rescued from the uncomfortable and bad condition
which were not possible to save the people’s life.
groupthink firstly coined by psychologist irving janis in 1972. He came up with
groupthink idea during the seminar on psychology of small groups and he found
that john and his advisers how took stupid decision. He wrote his experience on
groupthink in yale alumini magazine. He died in 1990 but still his book’s
second edition was published in which bay of pigs, the failure to protect pearl
harbor like stories of groupthink included (Cherry
What is groupthink?
Groupthink is a
psychological phenomenon that may occur within the group of people when desires
for the harmony among group members to make the rational decisions. It can be
caused by structural faults within teams and group cohesiveness to make the
final decision which may have negative consequences. (Cherry K. (2017).
Symptoms of groupthink:
indicate the eight symptoms that refers the term groupthink that are described
1. Illusions of invulnerability: in this symptom group members are
highly optimistic and they are ready to take any risk. Therefore, this symptom
may cause the extreme risks. For instance, Admiral H. E. Kimmel, which failed
to rescue the Pearl Harbor by Japanese attack despite the warnings. In the
warnings his intelligence chief informed him about the radio contact the
Japanese aircraft carriers that I had been lost and Kimmel did not take this
serious and laughed. Kimmel was overconfident about the Japanese career and
ready to take risk despite of warnings.
2. Collective rationalization: in this type of symptom group
members do not reconsider the warnings that they assumed and they also do not
rethink about the causes and consequences of their work.
3. Belief in inherent morality: group members during any decision
only consider and think about their rightness and they ignore the ethical and
public consequences of their decisions.
4. Stereotyped views of out-groups: in this group members feel
jealous with other groups and they consider other groups as their enemies which
leads to the conflicts among groups.
5. Direct pressure on dissenters: it includes that group members
are not able to argue with the views of other group member who propose the idea
for their project or task.
6. Self-censorship: some members have doubts and they do not clear
with the ideas of others still they do not want to clear their doubts and hide
their doubts because of fear.
7. Illusion of unanimity: in this assumed that majority of group
member’s agreement and views are same.
8. Self-appointed or Mindguards: this is the more dangerous symptom
as compared to others because in this symptom group members hide the
information about problems that will be generate from their task and work to
maintain the cohesiveness among group members work (Cherry K. (2017).
The collective of
all symptoms consequence is poor decision because of the ignorance and some
disabilities of group members.
Benefits and danger of groupthink:
in a large group have own benefits like one task think by number of minds as
one means task will complete quickly and fully completed as task divided into
number of people group task may have better results. Some members who are shy
in nature but have skills to perform well may become more confident with the
motivation by his/her team members. In
contrast, work in team have bad impacts on decision like some individuals are
more creative and some are suppressive means they do not think creatively which
may lead the poor result and incomplete analysis. Some members also analyze the
wrong results because of pressure and time limits which consequently affects
the whole group (Cherry K. (2017).
There are some recommendations which
help to avoid the negative results of groupthink that are describing follows:
Each member should have to discuss their results and
ideas routinely with other group members which help to eliminate the
problematic consequences of their work.
Group members should have to rethink about the
consequences of their work before take the final decision.
Group have to assign one leader who assigns the
different roles to each members of group according to the ability of members to
Groups should also have to reframe the whole
disagreements or warnings by the group members and may think about the results
of their decision.
Leader of team should have to encourage other group
members to participate in the open discussions of task work and also encourage
for the getting new ideas about their team work progress.
Avoid the conflicts among team members and also with
out-group individuals because it is the wastage of time (Cass R. sunstein and
hastie R. (2015).
of groupthink theory:
The scope of groupthink theory is
not widened because it is only applicable for the decision making groups not for
the other kind of groups.
conclusion, groupthink mostly has negative impacts which may generate from the
group members thinking. So, team members should have to consider the
recommendations to avoid the negative outcomes or failures in results of team
task. However, some groupthink have positive and extraordinary results which may
result from the cohesion and creativity of team members toward their task.
Teams should also have to apply the phenomenon of groupthink in terms of
positive consequences instead of negative consequences.
C. (2010) groupthink an impediment to success retrieved from: https://books.google.ca/books?isbn=1450061001
Cass R. sunstein and hastie R. (2015) Wiser
getting beyond groupthink to make groups smarter, United states of America
retrieved from: https://books.google.ca/books?isbn=1422122999
Cherry K. (2017) what is groupthink?
Retrieved from: https://www.verywell.com/what-is-groupthink-2795213