Sudan is experiencing a dreadful civil war that started on December 2013 and
has since split the country. With the help of many international actors a peace
agreement was signed in August 2015 by the government forces and by pro opposition
armed separatists, but both sides have since decided to continue with atrocities
and as a result fuel a war that has torn their country apart.
These atrocities include not
only destroying and pillaging civilian property, but also murdering, raping and
torturing unarmed civilians especially in the area of Juba and other regions.
Violence has become a reality for the citizens in South Sudan. To escape this
nightmare many of them has since chosen to flee their country and abandon their
homes and their loved ones in an attempt to save their lives. The 3.7 billion
people that have fled have tried to remain in their neighboring countries but
have only found closed doors. This huge number of refugees has created
financial instability in the area, because countries like Ethiopia and Kenya
that face economic problems themselves can’t take care of such a huge amount of
refugees. In addition to that more than 1.8 billion people had to be internally
displaced causing furthermore economical instability in the already bad economic
situation that existed. The people that were left behind ,including people with
disabilities continue to face abuses of their fundamental rights everyday.
But how did this conflict
begin? In December 2013 after a long period of political tensions military armed forces
faithful of President Salva Kiir , a Dinka, and those loyal to former Vice
President Riek Machar , a Nuer, started fighting the capital. Another incident
that fueled the conflict was the decision of the president to dissolve the 10
regions of South Sudan and form 28 new states.
a unite government in 2016 after the peace agreement both sides continued with atrocities.
In July Machar in fear of his life was forced to flee the country after some
clashes in the capital. His former ally Gen Tban Deng Gai was appointed vice
president something that encouraged Machar’s supporters to declare war once again. The situation
in South Sudan has many times been described as a critical one. Un Special
Advisor Adama Dieng warns the international community that this non-stop conflict
has transformed into an ethnic war and could become genocide.
peaceful referendum in January 20011, South Sudan became the newest state in
the world in July 2011.As a new state it struggles with the development that
needs to occur in the area in order to become economically stable. One big obstacle
is the legacy of conflict and instability in the area that stops the nation from
developing. The institutions are still limited due to the lack of resources and
the government hasn’t been able to implement any programs. One thing that could
be used to cause economic development is the huge oil supply that South Sudan possesses.
This could be the basis of a more stable economical and political situation.
Due to the
internal conflicts in South Sudan the country’s long-standing growth and prosperity
are endangered. This conflict doesn’t only challenge the development gains, it
also deteriorates the humanitarian situation. Although
South Sudan has vast and largely untapped natural resources, beyond a few oil
enclaves, it remains relatively undeveloped, characterized by a subsistence economy.
South Sudan is the most oil-dependent country in the world, with oil accounting
for almost the totality of exports, and around 60% of its gross domestic
product (GDP). On current reserve estimates, oil production is expected to
reduce steadily in future years and to become negligible by 2035.
The country’s growth domestic product (GDP) per capita
in 2014 was $1,111. Outside the oil sector, livelihoods are concentrated in low
productive, unpaid agriculture and pastoralists work, accounting for around 15%
of GDP. In fact, 85% of the working population is engaged in non-wage work, chiefly
in agriculture (78%).
The current conflict has had a significant financial
impact on South Sudan with 2015/16 GDP contracting by 6.3%. With oil production
disruptions and below-average agriculture production, the economy is expected to
contract further in FY2016/02017, while fiscal and current account deficits
will soar, spiraling domestic prices and the parallel market premium. Extreme poverty
rate has increased to 65.9%. Avoiding protracted crisis requires recommitment to
a political settlement and major fiscal adjustment.
decreased due to declining oil prices and lower oil production. Oil production
is expected to decrease to about 120,000 barrel per day this fiscal year down
from 165,000 barrels per day in 2014 and a peak of 350,000 barrels per day before
independence in 2011. The decline in oil revenue, has also had a negative
impact on macro-budgetary indicators, requiring austere fiscal adjustments. The
current account has deteriorated considerably leading to depreciation of the parallel
exchange rate and fueling inflation.
Key international actors
Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), as well as China, the European
Union, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States continued to support
and monitor the implementation of the peace agreement signed in August 2015.In
March 2016, the UN Human Rights Council established a UN human rights mission to
South Sudan to monitor the human rights situation and efforts to promote
UN secretary-general reported continued obstructions to the peacekeeping mission
by government forces and authorities. In November, the United States Mission to
the United Nations announced it would submit a proposal for an arms embargo over
South Sudan, as well as additional targeted individual sanctions.