Soil pollution with petroleum products is common
in areas where petroleum and natural gas are produced (Adam et al., 2002;
Clark, 2003). The production and distribution of petroleum products as well as
the use of petroleum products also lead to pollution of soil (Ayotamuno et al.,
2006).Moreover, accidental spills caused by pipeline leakages and ruptures have
been reported (Ogbo, 2009). Soil
pollution reduces soil alters its physical and chemical characteristics, that
culminates in reduced fertility and resultant negative influence on plant
production (Gong et al., 1996; Torstenssen et al., 1998; Wyszkowska and
Kucharski, 2000; Wyszkowski et al., 2004; Wyszkowski and Wyszkowska, 2005).
Diesel is a mixture of hydrocarbons that is consists of 30% n-parafin,
45% cycloalkanes and 25% aromatics (Frankenberger and Jahanson, 1982; Speight,
1992, 2007). It also contains sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen in low concentrations
as well as metals (Posthuma, 1970). Diesel oil can cause chronic or acute effects
in the plants. (Racine, 1994).
Petroleum pollution of soil
affects soil enzymes (Achuba and Okoh, 2014, Chikezie et al., 2016), which in turn
affect the growth and metabolic activities of exposed plants (Achuba2006;
Achuba and Okoh 2015; Achuba and Asagba 2016. Previous studies have reported
reduced germination of seeds in soil contaminated by petroleum products
(Amakiri and Onofeghara, 1984; Adam and Duncan, 1999, 2002; Vavrek and
Campbell, 2002; Achuba, 2006; Smith et al., 2006, Sharifi et al., 2007; Korade
and Fulekar, 2009; Ogbo, 2009). Contamination of the soil with diesel oil
limits the available essential soil mineral needed by plant (Roy et al, 2013)
and overall plant growth (Nwaogu et al, 2006; Das and Chandran, 2011).
researches have been carried out on different organic wastes. Some of these
studies include the investigation on the effect of nutrient amendments of
diesel oil polluted soil on plant height, leaf area and leaf numbers of
eggplant (Solanum melongena) were soil samples were polluted and amended
separately with different weights of poultry waste, pig waste, cow dung and
inorganic fertilizer (Akujobi et al, 2011) and also the effects of abattoir
effluent on microbial degradation of diesel oil in soil were evaluated (Umanu
and Owoseni, 2013).The application of pond wastewater as a fertilizer and soil
conditioner has not been widely reported.
The application of pond waste water could be a
very attractive proposal. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of
pond waste water on the growth and metabolism of cowpea seedlings grown in
diesel contaminated soil.
Significant of Study
attempts to exploit pond waste water as an organic fertilizer actively involved
in the remediation of diesel polluted soil. Local farmers with minimal or no
access to inorganic fertilizer in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria could benefit
from this research due to the fact that pond waste water is readily available
and is a cheap source of organic fertilizer. Also, the issue of proper ways of
disposing this pond waste water could be cocktailed with this research.
Scope of Study
study investigated the effect of pond waste water on both biomolecules and metabolism
parameters of cowpea seedlings grown in diesel contaminated soil. The
biomolecules include protein, glucose, amino acid, total sugar, total
chlorophyll, and beta carotene while the
biochemical parameters determined include lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase
activity, catalase activity, xanthine oxidase activity, aldehyde oxidase
activity, ? amylase activity, and phosphorylase activity.
1.4 Aims and
aim of the study was conducted to investigate the effect of artificial pond
waste water on the growth and metabolism of cowpea grown in a diesel
specific objectives of this study are to highlight:
i The effect of artificial
pond waste water on diesel induced alterations of the metabolism of
macromolecules in cowpea seedlings.
ii The effect of
artificial pond waste water on diesel mediated oxidative stress in cowpea
iii The effect
of artificial pond waste water on drug metabolizing enzymes in cowpea seedlings