Reconstruction following the Civil War had an abundant amount of strengths and many weaknesses as well. Although most of the plans enforced by the Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction were failures, there were a few in which they succeeded. Even with all the plans the South still faced problems after the Civil War. With Reconstruction going on there had to be policies to follow. According to David Emory Shi and George Brown Tindall’s America: A Narrative History, the Lincoln plan was to allow any Confederate state to be able to recreate a Union government (Shi and Tindall 705). It denied pardons to certain groups, mostly groups that were involved with the Confederacy. It seemed to be not harsh on the Southern states because it only encouraged the states to give the former slaves the right to vote. Most States would not put this plan into action until many years after the assassination of Lincoln. Radical Republicans argued that not the president, but Congress should be in charge of Reconstruction. They granted former slaves citizenship rights and believed that all people were equal in the eyes of God (Shi and Tindall 705). During Presidential Reconstruction, someone who gave supplies to a planter or farmer was allowed to hold lien on the crop (Eric Foner 160). Personal property, mechanics’ tools, and agricultural implements were protected from creditors. President Johnson stated in 1864, “Treason must be made odious, and traitors must be punished and impoverished,” (Foner 83). He considered himself the “Moses” that would lead the blacks to a land of freedom. Johnson’s two proclamations reflected his determination to overturn political and economic flaws due to slavery. One restored all the property rights except for slaves, upon former Confederates who pledged loyalty to the Union and support for emancipation. The other one called for the exclusion of voting for delegates if you did not honor the first proclamation. Johnson did not care much for slaves, by having owned slaves before the Civil War he thought slavery helped the nation in many ways. During the Reconstruction, there were some successes and some failures. The ways it was successful include a variety of outcomes. It restored the United States as a unified nation. The northern economy had a tremendous boom that boosted immigration, urbanization, and industrialization. The ratification of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments. It also settled issues that first arose in the late 1700s. The failures however over match the successes. Reconstruction failed to protect former slaves. The passing of black codes, voter qualifications, and many other black rights that were gained during Radical Reconstruction. Sharecropping caused blacks to be tied to the land owned by rich white farmers. Blacks eventually had to fight for their own civil rights a century later. Reconstruction closed with goals still unaccomplished. The southern states suffered a great deal after the Civil War. Almost every southern family lost at least one male member during the war. Then soldiers who did survive were starved and brought home diseases. The destruction of land, home, and cities caused plantation owners to go bankrupt. Many southern states were some of the poorest in the nation, which was still greatly divided after the war. Southerners dealt with liberal slaves with violence and created white supremacist groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan (Elizabeth Cobbs Hoffman 23). They blamed the Union League for their resort to vigilantism. Violence had an effect on Reconstruction politics. Most groups started out simply as social clubs with secret rituals. Made up of former soldiers of the Confederate army, the KKK began harassing black and white Republicans. Federal general Philip Sheridan called them “terrorists” intent on suppressing black political participation (Shi and Tindall 729). The motives for the violence often changed. Mostly anger about their defeat in the Civil War and the fear of former slaves seeking violent revenge against them and their state. “The pervasiveness of violence reflected whites’ determination to define in their own way the meaning of freedom and to resist black efforts to establish their autonomy, whether in matters of family, church, labor, or personal demeanor.”(Foner 53) Even if the blacks were free, whites in the south did not see it as freedom, but as if they were still enslaved. Healing and justice were the two profound ideas after the Civil War (Hoffman 28). One way or another both of these ideas had to occur. People found it easier to deal with the difficulties of the war rather than remember the horrible actions that took place during the war. Decoration Day or also known as Memorial Day was first a contest to see how many of one side could gather the most people. For the South, Memorial Day was a reminder of defeat and grief. For the North, it was a ritual of commemoration. Following the Civil War, Reconstruction had an abundant amount of strengths and weaknesses. With few successful plans in the Presidential and Congressional Reconstruction, it mostly consisted of failures. Both the North and the South faced problems after the war, but the South got the worst part of it.