Neetu suicidal ideation in college going girls

Neetu Chaudhary*, Dr.
Madhu Bala**, Dr. Anita moral***

 

            The
purpose of this present paper was to find out the suicidal ideation in college
going girls and how much modernization effects their suicidal ideation. For
this purpose data were collected from 120 girls, who were pursuing graduation.
They are belonging to different background. Mean, Analysis of variance (ANOVA),
multiple comparison test was used to compute the data. Result shows
demographical background as well as achievement motivation both effect
positively on suicidal ideation. After, Understanding the effect of
modernization on society, some useful suggestions will be token to escape the
side effects of   modernization.

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Key words:
Achievement Motivation, Suicidal Ideation, Demographical Background.

Introduction

            Modernization
is such a concept which refers to process in which society take place with many
changes in various fields. The changes occur in the field of science and
technology is almost considered to bring modernization. In context of social
sciences modernization refers to the change through industrialization,
urbanization westernization, assimilation, acculturation and so forth. These
are the changes which affects broadly human mind thinking, life style, values,
believes, customs, tradition and so many other behavioral patterns.

* Lecturer (Self Finance College), B.D. College,
Dhanora, Gazrulla (U.P.)

**  Asstt.
Prof., R.B.S. College,
Agra (U.P.)

*** Asstt. Prof., S.V.
College, Aligarh (U.P.)

When cognitive perpective is change through
modernization, the whole attitude change towards life problems, towards society
and toward universe. Where modernization is breaking off rigid, and meaningless
customs to lead a smooth life, there it is also leading people for some
challenges which are affecting there lives into complicated pattern because
modernization is to adopt the changes of time for the development of self and
the country as a whole. So people are more pressurized toward the progress and success
and they are becoming more ambitious for materialistic achievement rather than
intellectual growth. Due to the pressure of ambitions and progress in life,

People are suffering from many pathological and
psychological problems like stress, Anxiety, depression, obsession and suicidal
Ideation. Among these problems suicidal Ideation is an emerging problem among
adolescents, adults even in old age people.

            Suicidal
Ideation refers to the thought about taking one`s own life with some degree of
intent does not necessary mean that a person is an imminent risk to self,
further assessment is needed it is imperative that all suicidal Ideation is
taken seriously and explored to determine the level of risk.

Risk factors of suicidal Tendency:-

Anxiety , Depression , Anger ,  Aggression , Helplessness , Prior Suicide
attempts , Impulsiveness,  Exposure to
the suicide of Family member, friend, or significant friend , Impaired parent
child relationship and Lack of involvement in school work.

Warning signs of suicidal Ideation:-

            Change
in Eating and sleeping habits , Withdrawal from friend and family in reguler
activity, Violent actions , Rebellious behavior or running away , Marked
personality change , Frequent complaint about physical symptoms often related
to emotions such as stomachache, 
Headache, and  fatigue.

 

Methodology

Problem: – 1. To examine the impact of
modernization (through demographical background) on the level of suicidal
Ideation in college going girls.

2. To examine the impact of Achievement motivation on
the level of suicidal ideation.

Hypotheses:-

H1. There will be no significant effect
of modernization (through demographical background) on suicidal ideation.

H2. There will be no significant effect
of Achievement motivation on suicidal ideation.

Variables:-

1. Demographical Background (Urban and Rural)

2. Achievement Motivational (High, Moderate and Low)

 

Experimental Design:-

            For
statistical analysis 2 x 3 factorial design was used. The first independent
variable was demographical background varied at two levels Urban and Rural and
second independent variable was Achievement Motivation varied at three levels
that is high, moderate and low level of Achievement motivation.

Sample: –

 (A1 = Urban Background, A2 = Rural
Background, B1 = High
level of achievement motivation, B2 = Moderate level of achievement motivation, B3 = Low level of achievement motivation)

 

 

 

            120
subjects were selected for this study through randomization. There were 60
students related to urban background and 60 students related to rural
background. Each background consists of 20 students in each cell related to
high, moderate and low level of Achievement motivation.

 

Tools: – For present research following tools
have been used.

 

1. Achievement motivation scale constructed by Pratibha
Deo and Asha Mohan

Item: 50

Reliability = .78 test retest method

Validity = .54

2. Suicidal ideation scale constructed by Aron T.
back and Mana kovach

Item: – 19

Reliability = .89 coefficient

Validity = .41 concurrent validity

Statistical Analysis:-

            Mean,
ANOVA and Multiple comparison test were used for statistical Analysis.

 

Results:-

            Results
are discussed according to analysis of variance and multiple comparison test.

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1:-
2 x 3 ANOVA for suicidal Ideation

 

Source of

SS

df

MS

F

Variation

 

 

 

 

            A

1280.533

1

1280.533

43.27**

            B

1266.017

2

633.00

21.39**

            ABSS

138.117

2

69.05

2.33

Within treatment 
Error

3373.7

114

29.59

 

            Total

6058.367

119

 

 

           

      Table -1
Analysis of variance reveals that F ratio is found significant at the level .01
for factor A (Demographical background) and B (level of Achievement Motivation).

 Table 2 = Mean scores for factor A
(Demographical Background) and Factor          B (Achievement Motivation)

                       

                          A                                                                      B

            (Demographical
Background)
                

(Achievement
Motivation)
 

             A1

A2

B1

B2

B3

            (Urban)

(Rural)

High

Moderate

Low

            18.98

12.45

20.22

12.7

14.22

 

        Mean
values are shown in table 2, which clearly reveals that the girls of urban
background have high level of suicidal ideation. In terms of Achievement
motivation mean value reveals that the girls having high level of Achievement
motivation have high level of suicidal ideation Graphical presentation of mean
values is depicted in figure 1 and 2.

Figure 1- Graphical representation
for factor A (Demographical Background)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2- Graphical
representation for factor B (Achievement Motivation)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table -3 :- Multiple
comparison test for factor B Achievement Motivation

 

Ordered Mean

Ordered Mean

 

 
 

 
B2
12.7

B2
14.22

B1
20.22

B2
12.7

 
 
 

 
15.2**

 
7.52**

B3
14.22

 
 
 

 
 

6**
 

      **
Significant at .01 level of confidence

       Table -3
for multiple comparison test reveals that the groups B2 B3, B2 B1 and B3 B1 are found significant.

 

Discussion

            The
Purpose of present research was to examine the impact of modernization (through
demographical background) and Achievement motivation on the level of suicidal
Ideation. First finding of this study is related to the effect of modernization
on suicidal ideation. A comparison of suicidal ideation scores of two separate
categories of demographical background (Urban and Rural) clearly indicates that
modernity is an influencive variable to determine suicidal ideation in girls.
The obtained results suggest that the girls belong to urban background have
more degree of suicidal ideation as compared to the girls of rural background.

            Now,
the question arises why urban background girls have more suicidal ideation? The
suggestive answer is that due to rapid changes in the level of economy, social
values, cultural values, according to their demographical background girls have
increased their ambition levels as well as their needs. These are the factors
which make them pressurized to fulfill their ambitions and the degree of loss
and gain make them frustrate, competitive, sometimes psychologically ill,
through which, they may develop suicidal ideation more as compared to other
demographical background. A number of       
researches have been done in the consequences of modernization which refers
to the effect of urbanization and westernization on mental health. Sorokin,
(1941) have found direct consequences’ of rapid cultural changes on mental
health. The results suggest decreased level of mental health due to these
changes. Mead and slotkin argued that disorganization of society and
pathological tensions are often a reaction on technological developments.
Bjerregaard (1990) also revealed a positive correlation between population
change and mortality from suicide.

            Now,
a day’s modernization is easily seen in the urban areas, people adopt the
western culture like changes in life style, thinking, feeling, change in values
or alcohol intaking and so forth. Their living conditions are totally differ
from rural areas. So the people belong to urban background are some where
pressurized to maintain their standard according to the society.
Westernization`s effect can also be seen clearly in youth behavior. Due to
this, generation gap is also increased and family structures are also changed.
So the youths have not proper environment to share all their feelings with
family members, specially for girls, they have constricted environment in big
cities to share any thing with others. All these things indicate clearly a very
general relationship between suicidal ideation and the process of modernization
according to demographical backgrounds.

            The
second findings of this study clearly reveal achievement motivation as an influencive
variable to determine suicidal ideation. The term motivation refers to an
organismic state that mobilize activity which in some sense selected or
directive with respect to the environment 
(Newcomb, 1964) According to McClelland achievement motivation is a
disposition to strive for success in competion with other in some standard of
excellence set by the individual. The obtained results suggest that girls
having high level of achievement motivation have more suicidal ideation then
the girls having low level of Achievement motivation, the suggestive
explanation may be that due to modernization it’s a time of completion for
health wealth, life style and so forth. It does not the matter who is girl and
boy. Because of such environment women feel ambiguity toward their role, for
family, for society and for themselves? This is time of women empowerment they
are becoming teachers, social workers, doctors, ministers as well as they have
to dedicate a major role for family values. In such conditions they cannot
identify themselves with the traditional life style and modern life style. This
emerged conflicts, and stress have made them confused and frustrated. So they
may have sometimes suicidal ideation. According to Seltzer (1980) life style is
a major factor which has resulted into a gap between generations, feeling of
alienation, and lack of belongingness may be the consequence to create
frustration among youth. High achievement motivated persons have more suicidal
ideation this fact can be support with Atkinson model (1978). Which clearly
reveals that high Achievement motivated persons have more feeling of fear of
failure than others? They can not adjust in the conditions of failure, when
they could not Achieved their target, they easily loss their patience and
become more frustrated. Frustration is considered the base of suicidal ideation
as a result people may no longer have the competencies to solve out the problems,
especially when they feel a conflict between their target and moral values. Due
to this problem solving capacity may be reduced. As a result youth may suffer
from low self esteem, may loss their sense of meaning and purpose of life and
so forth. Lynge (1997) believes that the traditional way of upbringing is
increasing the vulner ability, psychological distress among young people, when
they confronted with occupational life.

            Through
above immense discussion of researches and authors, it may be said that              Achievement motivation may be
leading cause for suicidal ideation.

            Now,
it may be concluded that demographical background and the level of Achievement
motivation are influencing variables for suicidal tendencies, increasing in
society day by day due to modernization.

 

References

            American
Academy of child and adolscents. Psychiatry, facts and families 10 teen
suicide. Retrieved from 1 Mach, 2011 from http:// www. suicidal.htm

                        Bjerregaard, P. (1990). Gographic
variation of mortality in Greenland. Economic and demographic correlations. Arctic
medical research 49, 16-24.

            Lynge
(1997). Exploration in personality. New
york. oxford university press, INC. 7-42.

            Mcclelland, D.C.,
Atkinson, J.W., Clark and lowell,
C.C. (1995). The Achievemen  motives
New York : Appleton century crofx.

            Seltzer
(1980).  Adolescent suicidal and self
destructive behavior result often intervention study. Adol. Health care,
788-95.

            Slotkin,
Meed, Back A.T.D. Suicide notes and risk of future. Suicide journal of
American medical association 288, 495-496.