Markose and abundance of marine litter. Jambeck,

        Markose et al. (2017) reported that automatic
canal cleaning system makes use of solar power to remove floating trashes. The
device is placed across the water body so that flow occurs through lower grids.
Waste like plastic bottles, cans, bio-debris etc. are lifted up by using
conveyer fitted with projecting teeth. These belts are driven by solar powered
motors. Photovoltaic cells used are coupled with storage batteries for full day
working. Secondary conveyer is provided to remove the trashes to the dumping
regions.

 

       
Unnisa et al. (2011) state
that management of plastic waste among three key stakeholders: the producers of
the plastics (those with high propensity of ending up as litters), the
consumers of the plastics and the appropriate authorities responsible for
plastic waste management. Ferguson et al.
(2010) analyses provide clues in understanding particle fate and potential
debris sources, and address ecological implications of pelagic plastic debris .Moore, C.J., (2008) reported that synthetic polymers
are creating more threatening to all marine life.

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         Cole et al
(2011) states that microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment and
summarise the properties, nomenclature and sources of microplastics, discuss
the routes by which microplastics enter the marine environment; evaluate the
methods by which microplastics are detected in the marine environment, assess
spatial and temporal trends of microplastic abundance; and discuss the
environmental impact of microplastics. Kumar
et al (2016) summarise that debris characteristics, accumulation and
transport pathways along the Indian coastline it poses a serious threat to
marine organisms, ecosystems, human health and navigational safety.
Quantification, assessment and monitoring of this debris along the beaches,
coastal waters and on the seabed.

        Oigman et al (2007) assess the quantity, size,
composition and abundance of marine litter. Jambeck, et al (2007), studied about systematic approach of marine debris
reduction and monitoring marine pollution. This research conducts beach
surveys and examines the types and quantity of solid waste that accumulates onshore.
Singare (2012) studied and quantified three major non-biodegradable solid
wastes (NBDSW) viz. plastics, synthetic rubber and glass in the Mithi river of
Mumbai.

The Bandalong Litter Trap is
a floating device installed at strategic locations along waterways to collect
and retain floating litter, vegetation and other debris. The system operates
silently without any mechanical assistance, capturing and retaining debris
ready for removal and disposal. Bandalong Litter Traps are suitable for most
waterways wider than 2 metres, including waterways subject to tidal action,
rivers, streams, channels and open bodies of water. (http://www.bandalong.com.au/products-and-services/bandalong-litter-trap)   http://stormwatersystems.com/bandalong-litter-trap/

A fresh catch of plastic waste, Versova’s
Koli community and an urban design studio are figuring out how to use the
plastic waste washed up on the creek shore profitably. (http://www.thehindu.com 2017) (http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/a-fresh-catch-of-plastic-waste/article17444206.ece)

Agastya Buoyant is committed for designing and developing
trash boom for the Clean Ganga Mission drive under the Government of India
through its rich technical skills acquired and resource developed. With the activities for the water
surface cleaning has already been started since January 2016 for the River
Ganga under the supervision of National Mission for Clean Ganga on different
scale using appropriate technologies, Agastya Buoyant has proudly recommended
the necessity of trash boom for the above requirement in addition to the
skimmers being deployed to enhance the efficiency of the cleaning. Upto 90% of the material sourced in India making it an
indigenous product (http://www.agastyabuoyant.com/activity.html#clean).

Bangalore residents find innovative ways to save their lakes through simple mechanism called ‘trash boom’ is now
being used to remove weeds, water hyacinth and bring the aquatic life back to
Avalahalli Lake in JP Nagar. (http://bangaloremirror.indiatimes.com/ 2017)(http://bangaloremirror.indiatimes.com/bangalore/civic/residents-find-innovative-ways-to-save-their-lakes/articleshow/59042262.cms?)

Patil et al., (2016) described about mechanical
aquatic harvester  is a type of barge
used for a variety of tasks, including aquatic plant management and trash
removal in rivers, lakes, bays, and harbors. Trash removal
device are designed to collect and unload vegetation and debris using a
conveyor system on a boom, adjustable to the appropriate cutting height, up to
6 feet below the surface of the water. This innovative device was
related to skimmer boats, i.e., work boats for collecting and disposing of
floating solid waste materials in harbors and waterways.

Rafique and Langde (2017) states that
the river cleaning machine is consists of waterwheel driven conveyer mechanism
which collect & remove the wastage, garbage & plastic wastages from
water bodies. This machine mainly works on the principle of belt drive
mechanism which lifts the debris from the water. The main aim of the project is
to automate the sewage cleaning process in drainage, to reduce the spreading of
diseases to human.

Khalaji et
al., (2010) describes different types of gross pollutant traps. This
study intended to provide with a working knowledge of its GPTs for example
removal rates being achieved, how each GPT responds to its catchment size and
provide information on the overall cost effectiveness of each GPTs. The expected
outcome of this project is ability to accurately monitor, inspect and clean
their GPTs to maximize performance and cost effectiveness and better plan for
future GPTs.

Singare
(2012) studied pollution problem due to non-biodegradable solid waste (NBDSW)
along the Vasai Creek of Mumbai. The quantification studies were repeated after
the spring tide to know their accumulation in one spring tide, i.e., 15 days.
The collected waste material was properly dumped in the garbage depots after
the quantification studies were finished. He suggested that need to enforce
strict control measures against the disposal of solid waste by adopting a
well-planned waste management system.

Singare,
P.U. (2012) reported to quantify major non-biodegradable solid wastes viz.
plastics, synthetic rubber and glasses which are accumulated at three different
sampling stations of Ulhas River such as Ambivli, Kalyan and Dombivli. The
predominant solid waste materials, viz. plastics, glass and synthetic rubber
were collected, washed and weighed after drying. The quantification studies
were repeated after the spring tide to know their accumulation in one spring
tide, i.e., 15 days. The results are presented in kilograms per hectare. The
results of the study indicate that the major contribution to non-biodegradable
solid waste pollution was mainly due to plastic followed by synthetic rubber
materials. Among solid waste materials, plastic carry bags, milk and oil bags
contribute to larger extent, while among the synthetic rubber, foot wares were
the most prominent material responsible for NBDSW pollution.

Slaughter (2012) reported this research
includes mapping and spatial analysis of the variables which contribute to
litter in the Dog River Watershed using ESRI’s ArcGIS software. The study area
is of the Dog River Watershed, but delineated into the aforementioned
sub-watersheds. Placing a litter trap which is a strategically placed floating
device designed to accumulate floating litter on Eslava Creek is an effort solution
to reduce the laborious.