In this essay, we will consider
BFGym as a bureaucratic organisation and analyse the pros and cons of operating
such a business. We will also explore the three trainers and analyse their differences
in terms of individual differences. There are instances of de-motivation of
workers in the organisation that will be analysed in the light of motivation
theories. The last aspect we will capture in this essay, will be the leadership
styles of Kate and Philip and discuss it with what is available in literature.
One of the outstanding principles
and features of a bureaucracy is a formal structure in terms of hierarchy that
entails power centralisation in making decisions and planning. The rules set
ought to be followed strictly and accountability of the staff at lower level is
reported to the level above it to facilitate a uniform chain of command and
direction (Neupane et.al, 2011). BFGym has a clear structure of operation with
the management composed of former trainers who are responsible for making
decisions of the schedule of the sessions and classes to be taught by the
trainers who are responsible for the implementation.
The second principle is the
observance of formal rules and norms. This has the advantage of enhancing
discipline, efficiency in duty execution and keeping the workers in check. The
organisation is divided into departments that are headed by people specialised
in a particular field to enhance efficiency in operation of the organisation.
Equality of employees is enhanced by the presence of regulations and rules that
eliminate any possibilities for any bias and enhance fair judgment. The
recruitment process of workers is guided by their qualification and skills and
abilities, thus increasing the expertise in terms of functionality of the
employees (Sharma et. al, 2011).
In a bureaucracy, there are
recorded written documents of every activity and operation of the organisation.
A bureaucratic operational structure such as that of BFGym has several
advantages. Some of them include easy management of people particularly those
who do similar tasks on a daily basis (Neupane et.al, 2011). For example, In
BFGym, there is more effective control and co-ordination of functions in the
organisation such as personal trainers, those in management, administrators,
cleaners and instructors. Bureaucratic structure of management also has the
advantage of enhancing efficiency and efficacy particularly via delegation of
functions each according to individual strengths and capabilities. Employees in
a bureaucratic structure understand what is expected of them and they adhere to
the regulations and rules that are set by the organisation. This further
enhances the discipline level of the employees (Sharma et. al, 2011).
On the other hand, bureaucratic
structure is also associated with affecting the development of intrinsic
motivation from the workers themselves where they are able to find joy in what
they do. The rules and regulations are set by the organisation and are created
to ensure that the organisational goals are met. It is therefore not focused on
the development of the knowledge and skills of individuals working at the
organisation (Neupane et.al, 2011). For instance, despite the customer
satisfaction at the gym and a workforce that was mostly engaged to their allocated
duties and activities, there are complaints from the workers at the gym with
some of them having thoughts of quitting their jobs.
There is a delay in the process of
decision making because the decision making is done by the top-level manager of
the organisation for action to be taken regarding a particular problem. This
system is rigid and inflexible because no adjustments are made depending on the
situation and the time (Sharma et. al, 2011). For instance, the class
instructors are experiencing various problems in their work, but their
complaints do not get to the management. There is also misuse of power by the
manager who has power over the subordinates and may misuse it for their own
individual interests. The communication in this system is one-way downward
communication from the manager to the employees in the form of tasks, jobs,
regulations and rules. The employees do not have the privilege of providing
feedback to the managers at the top level to enhance improvement (Sharma et.
al, 2011). The decision-making process at BFGym is also done by top level
managers without the involvement of the class instructors.
Our second aspect of discussion
will entail the behaviour of the three class instructors Philip, Jane and Jo.
Personality has five factors: openness to experience, extraversion,
conscientiousness, neuroticism and agreeableness. Extraversion includes traits
such as sociability, positive emotions and assertiveness (Rothmann and Coetzer,
2003) and a tendency to stand out especially in a group. This is characterised
by Philip who enjoys interacting with various people and teaching. This enables
him to stand out as the chair of the group meeting with the other class
instructors. However, some conflicts such as that between him and Jo occur due
to his extroverted personality. However, he is also able to make many friends
as he interacts with many people, especially in training sessions.
Conscientiousness is a tendency to
be dependable and organised. Individuals with this kind of trait act dutifully,
have a strong drive to achieve and succeed in what they do and demonstrate
self-discipline (Sharma et. al, 2011). Jane is a self-driven individual with a
desire to enhance her training so that she can set up training programs and
classes and improve the quality of services offered. This trait also enables
Jane to stand out to contribute the views both personal as well as those that
benefit the other instructors during their group meeting. Agreeableness is a
trait where there is a sense of co-operation and compassion rather than being
antagonistic or suspicious towards other people (Sharma et. al, 2011). This is
also demonstrated by Jane who intervenes to address the problems they face as
instructors during the group meeting. Neuroticism is the degree of emotional
stability marked by a calm and stable personality. This personality is
demonstrated by Nick who despite being oppressed in terms of the duty
allocation and his opinions not being considered by Philip during the group
meeting maintains his calm and does not end up into conflict like Robin and Jo.
The conflict may have been caused due to personality clashes, whereby there is
an imbalance of personality traits among the instructors, (Lawley, Scott, 2013)
and a solely dominant individual, where in this case, proved to be Philip.
Openness to experience entails the
preference of an individual to enhance their creativity and curiosity by
seeking new paths (Mondak, 2010) in their daily activities rather than simply
following a strict routine (Sharma et. al, 2011). This trait is demonstrated by
Jo who is keen on her work and prefers providing services to a few people at a
time and prefers one-to-one training sessions compared to the class sessions.
This is because each client experience is unique and the approach towards
attaining the set goal may vary for different clients.
Motivation is the inner drive that
enables an individual to perform their work with enthusiasm. Motivation can be
intrinsic or extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation begins from the individual, where
a person desires a reward for themselves, rather than it being offered by
someone else (Lawley, Scott, 2013). On the other hand, extrinsic motivation is
derived from external rewards following the accomplishment of certain set
goals. (Sharma et. al, 2011). We will look into the causes of de-motivation
class instructors at BFGym using two process theories. The Adams Equity theory
is based on the perception of the employee that their inputs are more in
comparison to their outputs. This causes a sense of de-motivation to the
employee with regards to their employer and to their job (Neupane et.al, 2011).
This is especially evident for Nick, who is not given a fair opportunity in the
planning of classes leaving him with those that are during the weekends and on
early mornings during weekdays. This has the negative effect of reducing his
social interaction periods, exhausting him and draining off his energy. This
causes a sense of de-motivation in the individual.
Goal setting theory entails the
setting of SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound)
goals that motivate the employee to work towards attaining these set goals. The
participation of the employee in the formulation of these goals is not a
requirement of this theory but it enables the employee to own the goals and to
work towards attaining them (Neupane et.al, 2011). For instance, Jane and Jo
feel dissatisfied because they are not given a chance to participate in the
process of goal setting or contribute their views despite their willingness to
contribute to the improvement of service delivery at the organisation.
Various styles of leadership are
present in the work environments. Some of the factors that influence the type
of style applied in a particular organisation include the tasks that need to be
completed as well as the needs of the department. The current leadership at the
organisation is autocratic. This is because the top-level management has been
making decisions without the involvement of the subordinates. Autocratic
leadership style is efficient for employees who need to be supervised closely
(Northouse, 2007). However, for the case of the instructors at BFGym, they all
appear committed to their work and a more involving leadership style ought to
be involved to incorporate their views and enhance their creativity. Kate is
the head of the BFGym and her concern for the ‘effective functioning of the
gym’ caused her to take action and find out more about the complaints of the
employees who raised several issues. She goes the extra mile of giving a chance
to the employees and in particular the class instructors, to raise their
grievances and to come up with solutions that would solve these problems so
that they are addressed. This is because she realises the importance of the
input of the employees in the success of the organisation.
In this case, she applies
participative style of leadership. In this style of leadership, the input of
the members of the team is valued but the final decision rests with the
participative leader. This has the roll over effect of increasing the morale of
the staff who feels as being part of the process of decision making. However,
transactional leadership style may also be incorporated along with
participative style. This is because in transactional leadership trait, team
members and managers involve the common setting of goals by the manager and his
subordinates. It also includes assignment of tasks to be performed and the
provision of punishment and rewards to individuals based on their results on
performance (Northouse, 2007).
On the other hand, Philip assumes
the leadership role in the group meeting of class instructors owing to his
extroverted personality. His leadership during the group meeting is partly
autocratic because he does not regard the opinions of Nick and does not enquire
the reason for him not contributing to the discussion. He also raises his own
views that are not opposed by any of his colleagues but do not reflect the
problems that affect his colleagues. Laissez-Faire leadership style involves
the provision of a lot of freedom to the subordinate staff. The leaders are
often passive and fail to engage with their role (Dugan, Barnes and Turman, n.d).
During the meeting Philip ought to have used participative leadership style to
accommodate the views of all his colleagues without discriminating any of them
rather than the autocratic and Laissez-Faire leadership styles that he used.
His method of involving the other class instructors is harsh and ends up into
conflict with Robin and Jo. However, Jane mediates the situation by outlining
the challenges they face at the organisation.
In conclusion, a bureaucratic
structure of management has many advantages but by considering the
participation of the employee at the lowest level, enhancing participation in
the process of decision making and improving communication enhances the
efficiency of the bureaucratic structure. The leadership style used is
dependent on the situation and the time to enhance the efficacy in terms of
provision of leadership.