In Nietzsche’s On the Genealogy of Moral Books, he talks about that truth can only occur by the influence of society. He takes Book 1 by explaining the disgrace past generations have been, which explores the concept of Cultural Relativism. This explores that humans create different forms of mortality based on their culture and that there is ultimately no real true moral foundation for a culture, but rather morality just changes with time due to certain ideological forces like religion. Therefore, it is apparent that Nietzsche does have a belief in the idea of cultural relativism but seeks out to determine an ultimate and in his mind natural cultural system of will and power. His belief is shown when talks about a standard by describing society as “poisoned” and “deformed”, because it has turned away from what Nietzsche believes to be its natural roots. One of the controversial statements made by Nietzsche is that there is no free will, which is a key belief principle in Christianity, but rather we have a natural will inside us that could and should guide our actions, hence his concept of “Triumph of the Will”. In addition, in this work he also rejects communism, favoring instead a culture of power, will, and hierarchy with his famous concept of “Superman” who are naturally elite beings that should guide society.
In Nietzsche’s Twilight of Idols, his first main point is to say that God is dead. In this he means that cultural modernity has crushed the old metaphysical structures of the past, and humans must create a new ideological system that is human rather than supernatural. Then Nietzsche explores that when society is progression, it is due to the errors that the past generations have made. In this he means that what we consider progress was often brought about by fallible and arbitrary events. Sometimes we may even delude ourselves that our society is in progress. For example, in today’s society. We may think that our society is getting better, but in result poverty and suicide are at all time higher rates, compared to past generations. This is because there is no mention of hope in modern society compared to before. Before, there was the idea of the afterlife can one day be reached by the most virtuous beings, which is Heaven in Christian belief principles. This allowed people to push forward regardless of what they were going through in their life. Finally, he talks about how people deem they understand the true world, but they are wrong as there are to many unknowns in the world. This shows his contempt for religion but also modern philosophy as well.