I’m age and disconnect with the outside

I’m
writing about two theories to help understand the physical and
phycological changes that happen when aging. One theory is The Social
disengagement theory by Elaine Cumming and William Earle Henry. The
other is activity theory of aging by Havighurst.  The Social disengagement theory Elaine Cumming and William Earle Henry focuses
on the disconnection from society when you get older and how it is seen
as acceptable. They believe that when you get older, everyone stops
having social interactions with the people and friends around them
because they expect death and they do not engage as much with others
because their abilities worsen over time. Both theorists believe that
older people become more independent and do not focus on social
expectations. It is believed that complete disengagement occurs when the
individual and society are ready. This is because they have found new
roles making sure they do not become demoralized. Disengagement occurs
when you are aware of the short time you have left and the person loses
their ego energy. It is said that disengagement happens within all
cultures but is unique for each. The overall theory is that older people
decline with age and disconnect with the outside world. Disengagement
occurs and is useful because its believed to transfer the power from the
older people to younger. Many people disagree with this theory. Elaine
Cumming and William Earle Henry assume older people are unable to carry
out their previous roles. Others believe that many older people are
able to continue achieving their previous roles well. Its been argued
that society may suffer if elderly people do disengage. This is because
wisdom and insight will be lost.   The
activity theory by Havighurst focuses on keeping elderly people active
for a better life. Havighurst believes that those who stay active in
their later life would be more satisfied and more adjusted than those
who are inactive. People should replace roles they are unable to do,
with new ones. This helps to keep their place in society. It is also
believed to help delay the effects of old age and for people to age
successfully. The best activities for elderly people to do should
involve socialising with a group of friends. This helps to improve
mental and physical health as well as social skills. He believes that
older people have the same needs as a middle aged person when it comes
to activities. There
are people who disagree with this theory. This is because as you get
older your physical abilities are not as good as they used to be. Some
elderly people find it difficult to keep up with their original roles
and struggle to follow the activity theory.     Physical
and psychological systems change as you age. When you are older, you
are more vulnerable to these changes and how they effect you.   cardiovascular system As
we get older, the muscles in the heart become tighter and the size
could slightly increase. Due to the heart wall thickening, the blood
that can be held in the heart decreases. The resting heart rate and the
blood that is pumped around the body stays the same but the heart rate will decrease. Due to the decrease in heart rate, the risk of strokes or heart attacks are higher.  The blood vessels also become stiffer. They respond less to the chemicals that relax the
walls of the blood vessels. This makes blood pressure higher and this
also gives a higher risk if stroke, heart attacks and kidney failure.   Atherosclerosis is a disease that’s can be caused
from the changes to the cardiovascular system when aging. This is where
plaque builds up on the artery walls, making them narrow. This makes it
difficult for the blood to flow fluently and easily and causes complications that could lead to a stroke.  respiratory system                When
we get older or lungs become less flexible and the chest wall becomes
rigid. Lung capacity is constant but the volume of air that’s exhaled
will decrease
due to the air left in our lungs increasing. This makes It harder to
control your breathing. Older adults are less efficient in monitoring
and controlling breathing.  Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is caused
by problems with the respiratory system. It is a group of lung diseases
that makes it difficult to breathe due to poor airflow. This is casued
by the airways narrowing because the lining could be inflamed or the
tissue is damaged making it difficult to pull on the airways.   nervous system Our
nervous system and brain control our bodies senses, movement and
thoughts/memories. As we get older the spinal cord loses nerve cells.
This is because the disk between the back bone becomes hard. This results in pressure being put on the spinal cord and an outcome from this is little feeling in the spine, loosing balance and less
strength. Our brains are also effected. This is because nerve cells
pass messages slower also as a result of waste product collecting in the brain tissue from the nerve cells breaking down. The breakdown of these nerves also affects the senses. The speed of our
reflexes, reaction time and movement will decrease because the nerves
processes are slower. Other problems with our brain occur such as short
term memory and verbal/word usage declines, which increases the risk of dementia.   muscular-skeletal When we are older we lose approximately 2 inches in height. The main reason for this is because of the change in posture. Gradually, bone mass will decrease which causes the balance of bone producing cells and bone absorbing cells to become uneven,
When the bone stops growing, it starts to become thin. The older we
get, the weaker our bones become and eventually the smallest incident
can cause a fractured or broken bone.  menopause, hormone changes and skin Menopause happens because the change of balance in the body. As you get older, your ovaries do not produce as much oestrogen and eggs are not released each month. Menopause causes many different changes in the body, including weight gain because of the change of hormone levels and metabolism. The decline in estrogen levels is the main reason for fat storage in the lower body. Although many women gain weight, others loose the fat under the face, neck, hands and arms that supports them. This is the reason for the skin loosing its elasticity and wrinkles appearing.  The change in hormones also causes hot flushes. This is where there’s an overwhelming feeling of warmth  which then also causes sweating and oily skin. This then causes an increase of androgens such as testosterone, which creates a deeper voice and facial hair, especially around the chin area. Menopause also makes you more vulnerable to sun damage. The cells that make Melanin (Melanocytes), is controlled my estrogens
during menopause. The further into menopause, the more melanocytes is
lowered. This creates lighter skin making skin more prone to sun damage.