Ethical principles should be taken into account when performing research and create beneficence and avoiding no harm as non-malfeasance. These ethical principles mean that as a researcher required:
(1) Obtaining informed consent from potential research participants
(2) Minimizing the risk of harm to participants
(3) Protect their anonymity and confidentiality
(4) Avoid the use of deceptive practices
(5) Allow the participants by the right to withdraw from research
1) MINIMISING THE RISK OF HARM
In reality, researchers should not harm the participants. Participants could be harmed or put in a position of discomfort, so that a strong justification for this issue must be considerate. It also required an additional planning to demonstrate how a participant harmed will be reduced, informed consent, and detailed debriefing.
2) OBTAINING INFORMED CONSENT
Informed consent means participants must fully informed about the procedures and risks involved in research before give their consent to participate. That information may include the purpose of the research, the method being used, the possible outcomes of the research, as well as associated demands, discomforts, inconveniences and risks that the participants may face. Another reliable component of informed consent is the principle that participants should be volunteers, taking part without having been coerced and deceived.
3) PROTECTING ANONYMITY AND CONFIDENTIALITY
Protecting the anonymity and confidentiality of research participants also are an important component of research ethics. Ethical standards also require that researchers not put participants in a situation might be at risk of harm as a result of their participation. Harm can be defined as both physical and psychological in data collection methods used are somehow insensitive, there is or are a greater danger that once data has been collected harm can be happened. Those participants, who give the volunteer information, include a private or sensitive nature; help protect the privacy of research participants include storing of data, analysis, or the process of publication. Another confidentiality alternative is to remove the identifiers e.g., vernacular terms, the names, geographical cues, etc. or provide proxies when writing up the case. Therefore, we must consider the ways of overcoming the problems, such as aggregating data in tables and setting rules that ensure a minimum number of units are present before data/information can be presented.
4) DECEPTIVE PRACTICES AVOIDANCE
A deceptive practice arises in the face of the informed consent. A participant will be notice that being a part in the research and responsible to complete the requirement of this study. In this is situation, it use the deceptive practices controversial method. However, dissertation research should avoid any kinds of deceptive practices and this is not always the case.
5) PROVIDING THE RIGHT TO WITHDRAW
With the exception of those instances of covert observation where it is not feasible to allow everyone that is being observed will know what you are doing, research participants should always have the right to withdraw from the research process. Furthermore, participants should have the right to withdraw at any stage in the research process. When a participant chooses to withdraw from the research process, they, by all means should not be pressured or indirectly forced in any way to try and stop them from withdrawing.
Ethical considerations are about choices and actions during decision making which distinguish between the right and wrong. It determines the difference between acceptable and unacceptable situations. Ethical standards will prevent against the fabrication or be falsifying of data and therefore, promote the pursuit of knowledge and truth which are the primary goal of research. Ethical behavior is also critical for collaborative work because it encourages an environment of trust, accountability and mutual respect among researchers. This is very important when considering issues related to data sharing, co-authorship, copyright guidelines, confidentiality, in order for the public to support and believe in the research. Other helpful guidelines such as human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, conflicts of interest, safety and health standards and so forth, must be followed by the researcher. These ethical issues are greatly impacting the integrity of the research project and affected the chances to receive funding if a researcher cannot achieve this requirement.
Ethical considerations are playing the important role in research so that many professional associations and agencies have adopted codes and policies for the outline of ethical behavior and guide researchers. Many examples of codes address issues, such as honesty, objectivity, respect for intellectual property, social responsibility, confidentiality, non-discrimination, and others. It uses as a basic guideline, but researchers will still be faced with additional issues that are not specifically addressed and require the decision-making of the researcher to avoid misconduct. The resource includes many of those issues. The case studies are the example used in these resources to provide excellent examples of the types of the current issues.A human object is one of the most important ethical considerations in research. To address these considerations, most institutions and organizations have developed an Institutional Review Board (IRB). Panels of people in IRB will take responsibility and help to ensure the safety of human subjects in research and assist in making sure that human rights are not violated. They review the research methodology in grant proposals to assure that ethical practices are being utilized. The use of an IRB also helps to protect the institution and the researchers against potential legal implications from any behavior that may be deemed unethical.
Key phrases such as voluntary participation, informed consent, and risk of harm, use to describe the system of ethical protections in the contemporary social and medical research establishment, as well to protect better the rights of their research participants. Good research practice often requires the use of a no-treatment control group – a group of participants who do not get the treatment or program that is being studied. But when that treatment or program may have beneficial effects, the persons assigned to the no-treatment control may feel of their rights to equal access to services are being curtailed.