Entrepreneurship discontinuity, under the conditions of: task

Entrepreneurship
and the Entrepreneur

 

An attempt to
define Entrepreneurship is not new in the literature. For example, Kent, Sexton and Vesper, 1982, defined it as “the creation of
new business enterprises by individuals or small groups, with the entrepreneur assuming
the role of society’s major agent of change, initiating the industrial progress
that leads to wider cultural shifts”. Kuratko, 2005, defined it as “dynamic
process of vision, change and creation”, pp. 578. Though Kuratko, simply define
the term without implicating the person who carries that process, Kent et al.,
mentioned that person as an entrepreneur. Schumpeter, 1936, defined the
entrepreneur as a “person who carries out new combinations causing
discontinuity”, (p.74). He argues that the function of an entrepreneur is to
reform or revolutionize the pattern of production by exploiting an innovation
or, more generally, an untried technological possibility for producing a new
commodity or producing an old one in a new way, by opening up a new source of
supply of materials or a new outlet for products, by reorganization an industry
and son on”, (p.132). Though the attempt to define entrepreneurship preceded
and continued even after Schumpeter, Bull and Willard (1993) asserted that the
Schumpeter’s definition remains the most consistent. They farther theorized
Entrepreneurship stating that: “A person will carry out a new combination
causing discontinuity, under the conditions of: task related motivation,
expertise, expectation of personal gain and a supportive environment”. We argue
that this theory is stable to understand Entrepreneurship education and
entrepreneurial attitudes that will be discussed in the following section.

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Entrepreneurship
education, Entrepreneurial attitudes and Intention.

 

Entrepreneurship
education refers to “any pedagogical program or process of education for
entrepreneurial attitudes and skills”, (Fayole, Gailly, and Lassas-Clerc, 2006,
p.702).  Entrepreneurship education
programs have been increasing in different parts of the world with an aim to
equip students with knowledge and competences necessary to create economic
value and jobs, Duval-Couetil, (2013). Some programs Entrepreneurship education
are designed for creating awareness about entrepreneurship as a career option,
others designed to prepare for aspiring entrepreneurs or for management
training for existing entrepreneurs, (Jamieson, 1984). Linan, 2004 added
another aspect of entrepreneurial dynamism and asserted that Entrepreneurship
education designed to increase awareness is the one that fits for students who
had no experience for starting a business and who are in the process of
choosing a career.

Attitude refers
to the degree to which a person has a favorable or unfavorable evaluation or
appraisal over something (can be on another person, a certain behavior or an
object), Ajzen, 1991. Allport, 1935 (as cited in Regan & Fazio, 1977)
defined attitude as a mental and neutral state of readiness, organized through
experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence up the individual’s
response to all objects and situations with which it is related”. Despite a
vast literature on the relationship between attitudes and behavior, very few
revealed any consistence in the relationship, Regan & Fazio, 1977. Entrepreneurial
intentions, are defined as the desire to own a business (Crant,
1996) or to start a business (Krueger, Reilly, & Carsrud, 2000). According
to the TPB (Ajzen, 1991), if the subject has a positive attitude towards a
behavior (to create own-employment), the subjects’ intention to start an
own-employment will increase. In the Theory of Entrepreneurship (Bull and
Willard, 1993), the attitude is seen as
task-related motivation and expectation of gain for self.  Entrepreneurial education’s function of
raising awareness among students, will in that process change the students’
attitudes (allowing students to see the benefits of entrepreneurship) towards
entrepreneurship and therefor trigger entrepreneurial intentions (willingness
to start entrepreneurial ventures), (Bae et al., 2014). 

 

Entrepreneurship
Education and Entrepreneurship

There is a vast literature on Entrepreneurship
Education and its influence on entrepreneurial intentions and how the latter is
translated into Entrepreneurial ventures, (Bull & Willard, 1993; Kuratko,
2003, 2005; Sawyer, 2006; Bae et. al, 2014; Sanchez, 2013). For example, Bae et
al. conducted a metanalysis of 73 studies with a total sample of 37,285
individuals and found a significant but small correlation between
entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intentions (p= .143). Fayollle
& Gaily, (2013); Lena & Wong, (2004); Bae et. al, (2014) researched on
the relationship between entrepreneurial competences and intention on one hand
and the growth of entrepreneurial ventures on the other hand and found a
positive relationship. However, Lena & Wong were cautious to confirm a
causal relationship between the two variables.

Methods
of teaching entrepreneurship

The field of teaching methods of
entrepreneurship curriculum has been studied by many scholars (Esmi, 2015;
Sawyer, 2006). Sawyer, 2006 seemed to be worried by a low attention that
educator paid to the changing mechanisms of economy in the world from traditional
economy to knowledge based economy. He argued that, entrepreneurship educator
should not that shift at adopt new methods of teaching that could develop the
modern knowledge, skills and competences relevant to the current economic
trends. For that he proposed the used of collaborative knowledge-building
activities in entrepreneurship classes. 
In a more descriptive way, Esmi, (2015) proposed three teaching-learning
methods which also reflect the idea of collaborative activities in classrooms:
(1) Direct teaching-learning methods:
this approach includes methods such as inviting guest entrepreneurs – Mentoring – Official
speech-seminars – Video watching and recording – Training in extracurricular
activities -Training in specialized lessons – Small businesses mentoring
–Entrepreneurship tutoring. (2)
Interactive teaching-learning methods include process-oriented learning – Learning from mistakes –
Interviewing entrepreneurs – Bilateral learning – Group discussion – Networking
– Discussion – Problem-oriented learning – Active learning. (3) Practical-operational teaching learning methods
include Role-playing – Training workshops –
Site visiting – Class practice -Research projects – Internship -Business
planning- Starting business – Studying nature – Investment projects – Practical
experience.