Energy years ago, the earliest pump device

Energy is used by a device called a pump for compress, transport, and raise a liquid. A few
thousand years ago, the earliest pump device was called ‘ Noria ‘, which was used for field
irrigation (Figure 1). In ancient, pumps have changed, but they still operate on the same basic
principle. Pumps are applied in many area of life and industry, such as, water provisions,
drain in a protected area to control the level of water, irrigation of fields, in petroleum
industry which is used for production transportation and refinery, medical and pharmaceutical
field to transporting the chemicals in drug manufacture and fluids are pumped into and out of
a body, pumps are used in many other fields. Pumps dependent upon their guideline of
operation primarily are classified into Positive displacement pumps (reciprocating, rotary
pumps), and Roto-dynamic pumps (centrifugal pumps). P.Gerdhar-O.Moniz-2005Figure 1: Notria water wheel. Practical centrifugal pump-20055 | P a g e1.1.Centrifugal pump
Centrifugal pump (c-pump) generates energy from engine to produce a velocity then the
velocity is converted into a steady flow, fluid flow is accelerated by a impeller rotating due to
an energy of engine.Jon penland-2012. The centrifugal pumps are the greater part regularly
utilized of the pump types. In petroleum field most commonly used pumps are centrifugal
pump, because of ease of maintenance and operation, simple in design, smooth flow rate,
wide range of capacity. C-pump can be classified according to various basic, as the following:
P.Gerdhar-O.Moniz-2005• Pump shaft axis orientation, horizontal or vertical shaft axis (figure 2).• Stages number, it shows diffusers and impellers sets in pump. Single, dual, or multi
stages are formed by the number of the sets (figure 3).• Orientation of suction flange, direction of the pump suction flange is the basic. This
direction could be vertical known as Top, or horizontal known as End (figure 4).• Connection of shaft, if the coupling is not present between the motor it is called a
closed coupled pump.• Casing split, orientation of casing split is a base of that, which is radial or axial.• Bearing support. Which are divided into an overhung, or an in-between bearings
pump