Describe to control pests and yield greater

Describe the p2
process for handling of hazardous waste.


P2 stands for pollution
prevention which means the reduction or elimination by volume or toxicity of
waste. This is a proactive approach to prevent waste from entering our environment.
P2 uses equipment and technology to make modifications of materials for
improved housekeeping, maintenance, and inventory control.  The process includes: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle,
and Treat. Reduce is the elimination or reduction of the source which it is
generated from. If the source is a hazardous waste it will follow proper
guidelines for either storing, handling, or deposing. Reusing hazardous
material is recommended if possible to minimize the generating of new waste. In
order to reuse hazardous materials, it must be determined by the manufacturer
and cleaned if necessary. Recycling of hazardous material is done when possible
when using proper equipment for processing. 
The recycling process recovers and decontaminates material to be reused.
Treating is reducing toxicity or volume by chemically, physically, biologically,
or thermally altering the waste. Finally, a way to destroy 99.99 percent of
hazardous material is incineration. However, due to the concerns about
emissions incineration is currently only making up of 3% of the United States disposal
for hazardous materials.

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Why are pesticides so commonly used in modern large-scale agriculture?
What effect does the practice of monoculture have on the use of pesticides?


Pesticides are commonly used in
agriculture to control pests and yield greater outputs. Pesticides cover a wide
range of uses such as: insecticides, herbicides, rodenticides, and many more.
The primary benefit of using insecticides is to produce higher yields. For
example, if caterpillars are feeding on a farmer’s crops, pesticides may be
used to hinder the caterpillars from harming the crops. Overall, pesticides
will allow farmers to make more revenue by reducing the crops lost to pests.

Monoculture is the farming of a
single crop making weeds and insect pests highly attractive to these fields. These
fields rely on the use of large amount of pesticides in order to work.  Nature is ever evolving and the use of
insecticides and herbicides causes organisms to adapt against the chemical
threat. Thus, the higher amounts of pesticides leave traces of chemicals on
plants which are then used for human consumption entering our food chain.
Furthermore, pesticides kill the majority of insects including the beneficial
ones, plants and neighboring ecosystems need to survive.  This causes more chemicals to be applied into
the solutions which damage ecosystems severely. The harmful results caused by
monoculture can be prevented by farmers taking organic farming approach.
Organic farming approach uses techniques that rely on crop rotation, fostering
insects, and biological pest control.


What are the problems associated with storm water
runoff in urban areas?

Storm water runoff is the result
of rain or snowmelt flowing through surfaces such as roads, parking lots, and
land. Thus, causing the water to collect chemicals, debri, and other pollutants.
If the storm water is not treated before entering our water system it will affect
the quality of lakes, rivers, and the ocean. There are a few ways to capture and treat storm water though the task
is difficult and expensive. The areas where storm water is of most concern is
largely developed urban areas where larger amounts of impervious surfaces are
located. Runoff has many harmful effects to our water system, water temperature
increases killing fish and organisms. In addition, salt used to melt snow from
sidewalks is contaminating streams and groundwater. Water affected by runoff
affect vegetation, wildlife, stream beds, and pose health hazards to people. To
combat the issue more research and funds must be allocated to resolve this


How is our lifestyle related to the growing solid waste problem?

After World War II consumers began creating
products encouraging buy and throw away retail items. The after math is 40
years later of throwing away products has lead to a drastic increase in solid
waste. To cope with the large amounts, we have turned to: landfills, recycling,
incineration, and source reduction. Landfills are now requiring massive
construction and complex technology to monitor waste being disposed posing a
large investment. Recycling is now done more than ever as a joint effort to
reduce waste. Incineration has been an option which has caused foul odors, ash,
smoke, and noxious gases in order to minimize solid waste. Source reduction has
been introduced in packaging to reduce concentration and encourage recycled


Describe the problem with the ozone layer and what is responsible
for the problem.

The Ozone layer is one of the
most important issues we face today. It is also one of the primary contribution
global warming. The layer of ozone gas protects us from the suns harmful
ultraviolet radiation. Without the ozone gases these harmful rays can enter our
environment causing global warming and health issues for all living organisms.
The main destruction of the ozone layer is the increase of chlorofluorocarbons
which accounts for 80 percent of ozone layer depletion. Chlorofluorocarbons are
emitted by vehicles, industrial processes, air conditioners, and refrigerators.
 The problem with the ozone layer is that
human made emissions are pollution the stratosphere which will make natural
repairing of the ozone slower.