Cotton is the most popular textiles
fabrics due to their unique properties such as softness, versatility,
absorbance and breathability and about 48 % cotton fabrics is devoted as
clothing materials all over the world for mankind only 1. Textile fabric, especially
cotton, provides an admirable
environment for the growth of different microorganisms like, pathogenic and bacteria and fungi because
of their large surface area and their ability to preserve moisture 2. The
result from this damage to clothing, strength
loss, staining, and discoloration may even cause skin diseases 3.
The importance of textiles is for not only mankind but also several industries all
through the world, to congregate different purposes for our everyday life 4-5.
The significance of textiles is not mainly for recognized in clothing products
but also in other industries, such as food packaging, water purification,
domestic home furnishings, medical devices, automotive textiles, air filters, thermal,
sports equipment, healthcare and hygienic applications and mechanical
protection 6-7. In recent year antimicrobial coated textile fabrics has much
attention for the development of protective, decorative and functionalized
In modern green and bioactive research, mainly bacteriostasis research
nanoparticles play an important role. A large number of chemicals and
modification have been used to impart protection textile fabrics from
microorganism 2. There are series of organic and inorganic chemicals to engage
to impart protection
such as inorganic salts, antibiotics, phenols, organometallics, iodophors,
thiophenols and heterocyclics with anionic groups, nitro compounds, ureas,
formaldehyde derivatives, amines and different nanoparticles 13.
From this point of view, researchers
have tried to applied several nanoparticles to defend textile materials due to
their considerable physicochemical properties and their potential applications.
14. In recent years, application
of ZnO nanoparticles has great interest and applies in the field of electronic
and optoelectronic devices such as sensors, displays, solar cells, field
emission and for photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes under UV-visible-light
irradiation 15-20. Among the metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, Zinc oxide
is one of the most important metallic oxides nanoparticles and popularity is
due their wide-band-gap, nontoxicity and low-cost synthesis 21. On the other
hand, zinc oxide NPs showed outstanding antimicrobial properties unlike other nanoparticles
and having nontoxicity behavior towards human health 22-24. Moreover, among
those nanoparticles, ZnO NPs have additional advantages over the other one in
the reverence of counterparts in terms of cost, lack of coloration, UV
protection and easy production procedure 25-27. One important advantage of
ZnONPs is their existence in different size and shape at room temperature such
nanoarrays, hexagonal architectures, nanorod, nanowire, microspheres etc
28-31. For the strong UV protection
ability and antibacterial activity of Zinc oxide nanoparticles, it widely used
widely used in different areas such as sunscreens, coatings and, paints 32. In
the current investigation ZnO nanoparticles is the most applied nanoparticles
for antibacterial agents in the microscale or nanoscale formulations for both E.
coli (Gram-negative) and S. aureus (Gram-positive) microorganisms 27. So
protection of textiles from microorganism researchers try to developed or
modify the textile properties and different technique used to modify the
textiles special including such as dip coating 33-34, layer-by-layer
coating techniques 35, UV-irradiation 36, chemical vapor deposition
techniques 37, hydrothermal process 38 and very recent one admicellar
polymerization 39. The main drawbacks of the use of those kinds of chemicals
are toxic to humans as well as the environment and are not biodegradable 1.
In the modern age with increasing world population, people focused their
attention on educating and increasing awareness, of human beings toward
environmental protection mainly protecting themselves from harmful
microorganisms to offer themselves a comfortable, healthy and safe life 40. With
this increase in health awareness people demand an eco-friendly process in
textile industries substitutes the poisonous and harmful chemicals to protect
the quality and robustness of the textile fabrics 41.
In the present paper, we report a
new in situ modification technique for the modifications of cotton fabrics
using ZnO nanoparticles to create hydrophobic antibacterial protect the surface. First, ZnO nanoparticles
were built-in on the cotton fibers using zinc acetate, NaOH, and surfactant
solution to induce hydrophobicity. This is the simple and facile modification
technique method relatively low synthesis temperature and low cost effective.
ZnO nanoparticles loaded cotton sample was found with excellent hydrophobic and
antibacterial activity together with moderate cytotoxicity. The objective of
this study is to analyze the cotton
fabrics for improved hydrophobic and antimicrobial properties.