Content A single person cannot form a


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collection of individuals who have regular contact and frequent interaction,
mutual influence, common feeling of camaraderie, and who work together to
achieve a common set of goals

For example, you could be a member of a sports team, club,
church group, college class or workplace.

If you are with people doing same thing or aiming for the
same thing, it would be known as a group of people.


Group dynamics and organizational behaviour refer to
the various roles played by members of an organization, the ways in which they
interact, share common goals and work together.


There was discipline between everyone in the committee.

Common goal and interest

Everyone’s goal in the committee is same. They all wanted to design a
new product.


Jose’ considered everyone’s opinion in the meeting he held. And also, in
the end he decided to do what the committee has decided.

Collection of two or more people

Groups are the
collection of two or more people. Groups are composed two or more persons     in a
social interaction. One plus makes a group and groups form an organization. A
single person cannot form a group as it at least requires two or more people
for group formation. In the scenario, Jose’ have formed a group with lots of
people from each company.



Set specific Goals for the organization: A formal
organization has to set specific goals for the personnel working in it. By
achieving the goals individually achieved the organization as a whole will be
benefited in achieving the eventual goals.

working relationship: In the formal organization, the
primary goal is to establish an effective working relationship and to establish
a clear chain of command.

group cohesiveness: Creating a sense of cohesiveness
and belongings among the groups of the personnel working in a formal in a
formal organization. The employee interpersonal interaction is important for
the functioning of an organization.

Development: A formal organization works on the organizational
development by testing all the rules and regulations and the chain of
activities as a present. Organization detects any problem and work to change
them if necessary for better service

Discipline within an organization is important to get the best result of it.
The organization management has to find a proper way to achieve proper

Human Resource Development:
It helps in other human resources development activates such as recruitment,
promotions, career planning an envelopment and manpower planning.

Establishing organizational
credentials: Formal organization
establishes organizational credentials also among the different parties within
or outside the organization.



The best-known scheme for a group development was
advanced by Bruce Tuckman in
1965. Initially, Tuckman identified four stages of group development, which
included the stages of forming, storming, norming and performing.


Forming stage

first stage of group development is known as the forming stage. The
forming stage represents a time where the group is just starting to come
together and is characterized with anxiety and uncertainty. Members are
cautious with their behaviour, which is driven by the desire to be accepted by
all members of the group.


Next, the team moves into the storming phase, where
people start to push against the boundaries established in the forming stage.
This is the stage where many teams fail.

Storming often starts where there is a conflict
between team members’ natural working styles. People may work in different ways
for all sorts of reasons but, if differing working styles cause unforeseen
problems, they may become frustrated.


Gradually, the team moves into the
norming stage. This is when people start to resolve their differences, appreciate
colleagues’ strengths, and respect your authority as a leader.

Now that your team members know
one another better, they may socialize together, and they are able to ask one
another for help and provide constructive feedback.


The team reaches the performing
stage, when hard work leads, without friction, to the achievement of the team’s
goal. The structures and processes that you have set up support this well.


Many teams will reach this stage
eventually. For example, project teams exist for only a fixed period, and even
permanent teams may be disbanded through organizational restructuring.


Learning is a common term which we use in our everyday
life. But within the field of educational psychology, the term learning is actually a
specific term. Different people use different words to define learning within
educational psychology, but in general, learning is a step-by-step process in
which an individual experiences permanent, lasting changes in knowledge,
behaviours, or ways of processing the world.

Everyone was having their own opinion in the group.
Most wanted to use the existing designs. Because of this the others who wanted
to talk even did not talk.

Learning takes time and patience. It is a process — a
journey. A self – directed learning process is arguably the most powerful model
for facilitating and inspiring individual, group and organizational learning
and development.



Learning Process


about reactions to a product, a person’s performance of a task, etc. which is
used as a basis for improvement


Learner perceives or develops an idea of what has to
be done.


It’s processing in the brain and thinking of how the
information can be put in to a process.


It’s a movement we bring . Often we act on things we
decide and plan

The theories of learning are :

Classical conditioning

conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an
environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.

The first part of the classical
conditioning process requires a naturally occurring stimulus that will
automatically elicit a response. Salivating in response to the smell of food is
a good example of a naturally occurring stimulus.

During this phase of the
processes, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) results in an unconditioned
response (UCR).

to another example which is also one of the most famous examples of classical
conditioning was John B. Watson’s experiment in which a fear response was conditioned
in a boy known as Little Albert. The child initially showed no fear of a white
rat, but after the rat was paired repeatedly with loud, scary sounds, the child
would cry when the rat was present. The child’s fear also generalized to other
fuzzy white objects.

Operant conditioning

The type of
conditioning learning process in which behaviour is affected or controlled by
its consequences is called operant conditioning. Operant conditioning, along
with classical conditioning was the major analysis point in the 20th century,
and these two sorts of learning have still dominated the core of behaviour
analysis at present.

Consider a scenario where a
student is neglecting his studies and has started failing, and still doesn’t
care enough to change his ways. If a student is scolded by the teacher and the
parents take certain action like reducing his allowance, the student, even
though reluctantly, will be forced to study to avoid the same consequences

This is a perfect example of
punishment induced conditioning learning or commonly, positive punishment.
The punishment received by the student encourages him to study harder and
hopefully not-fail again.

Learning theory

Learning Theory posits that people learn from one another, via observation,
imitation, and modelling. The theory has often been called a bridge between
behaviourist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention,
memory, and motivation.

For example a
student might get inspired and try to write nicely by seeing the other students
neat work.

Shaping behaviour

The practice of shaping is not, in and of itself, a
method for managing inappropriate behaviour.  Instead, it is a method that
assists you in setting goals for the behaviour of a certain student. 
Shaping will provide guidance and direction for your behaviour change program,
and will help you assess its effectiveness.  It can assist you in changing
an aberrant behaviour or creating an appropriate behaviour that is not yet in
the student’s repertoire.

 For example, a
student never does his math homework. You would like to have him complete his
homework on a daily basis.  You realize that if you wait for him to
complete his homework before you reinforce him in some way, you may never (or
infrequently) have the opportunity to
administer a positive consequence. Therefore, you decide to break down the
desired behaviour into sub steps that are progressively more demanding. 


predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a
certain idea, object, person, or situation.. Attitude influences an
individual’s choice of action, and responses to challenges, incentives, and

Three components of an attitude:

The opinion or belief segment of an attitude

The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude

An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone
or something

If I were
at Jose’ position, I would conduct a meeting with all the members as soon as I
get the names. And also tell them that we need to design a new product because
the presidents want it and also the purpose of this group is also to make a new

Now, I
would write a letter to the presidents and if they approve will carry on with
the work. And if they did not approve, will conduct a meeting and tell the
members that the presidents did not approve it and we need to make a new
design. And, will tell them to start the work as soon as possible with the new

Some of
the characteristics of good leadership are:


to delegate
of humour
to inspire


Leaders should always have to be honest to their
employees. If the connection between the leaders and the employees are based on
lies, the employees would lose the trust and will not respect the leader.

We must keep in mind that there are many powerful
and successful leaders that have not exhibited all of these character traits
and that the definition of a good leader is quite ambiguous.   It can
be determined, however, that most good leaders do leverage most of these

Jose’ should have a good communication skill. It’s
one of the most important Jose’ should correct to become a good leader.



nature vs. nurture debate within psychology is concerned with the extent to
which particular aspects of behaviour are a product of either inherited or
acquired characteristics.

Nature is
what we think of as pre-wiring and is influenced by genetic inheritance and
other biological factors. Nurture is generally taken as the influence of
external factors after conception, e.g., the product of exposure, experience
and learning on an individual.

nature-nurture debate is concerned with the relative contribution that both
influences make to human behaviour.



Maslow’s hierarchy of need categories is the most
famous example: 


It’s the basic needs of a person. Eg: Food,
shelter, clothes etc. Before anything these needs should be fulfilled.


It’s the need of the security and the stability in
day to day life.


It’s the need of love and belongingness in ones
relationships with other person.


Need for the respect, recognition, self-esteem
personal sense of competence.


This is the highest need level. In this stage you
use the abilities to the fullest.

Cognitive Evaluation Theory

This theory suggests that there
are actually two motivation systems: intrinsic and extrinsic that corresponds
to two kinds of motivators:

motivators:  Achievement, responsibility and competence. motivators
that come from the actual performance of the task or job — the intrinsic
interest of the work.
pay, promotion, feedback, working conditions — things that come from a
person’s environment, controlled by others.

One or the other of these may be a
more powerful motivator for a given individual.

Intrinsically motivated
individuals perform for their own achievement and satisfaction. If they come to
believe that they are doing some job because of the pay or the working
conditions or some other extrinsic reason, they begin to lose motivation.

The belief is that the presence of
powerful extrinsic motivators can actually reduce a person’s intrinsic
motivation, particularly if the extrinsic motivators are perceived by the
person to be controlled by people. In other words, a boss who is always
dangling this reward or that stick will turn off the intrinsically motivated

Factor theory (Herzberg)

According to Herzberg, two kinds
of factors affect motivation, and they do it in different ways:

factors. These are factors whose absence
motivates, but whose presence has no perceived effect. They are things
that when you take them away, people become dissatisfied and act to get
them back. A very good example is heroin to a heroin addict. Long term
addicts do not shoot up to get high; they shoot up to stop being sick  to get normal.  Other examples
include decent working conditions, security, pay, benefits (like health
insurance), company policies, interpersonal relationships. In general,
these are extrinsic items low in the Maslow/Alderfer hierarchy.
These are factors whose presence motivates. Their absence does not cause
any particular dissatisfaction, it just fails to motivate. Examples are
all the things at the top of the Maslow hierarchy, and the intrinsic

So hygiene factors determine
dissatisfaction, and motivators determine satisfaction. The two scales are
independent, and you can be high on both.



Rolihlahla Mandela
was born into the Madiba clan in the village of Mvezo, Transkei, on 18 July
1918. His mother was Nonqaphi Nosekeni and his father was Nkosi Mphakanyiswa
Gadla Mandela, principal counsellor to the Acting King of the Thembu people,
Jongintaba Dalindyebo. In 1930, when he was 12 years old, his father died and
the young Rolihlahla became a ward of Jongintaba at the Great Place in
Mqhekezweni 1 .

Hearing the elders’
stories of his ancestors’ valour during the wars of resistance, he dreamed also
of making his own contribution to the freedom struggle of his people.

The narrated life and times of
Nelson Mandela

He attended
primary school in Qunu where his teacher, gave him the name Nelson, in
accordance with the custom of giving all schoolchildren “Christian” names.

He completed his
Junior Certificate at Clarke bury Boarding Institute and went on to Healdtown,
a Wesleyan secondary school of some repute, where he matriculated.

Mandela began his
studies for a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University College of Fort Hare
but did not complete the degree there as he was expelled for joining in a
student protest.


Mandela, while
increasingly politically involved from 1942, only joined the African National
Congress in 1944 when he helped to form the ANC Youth League (ANCYL).

In 1944 he married
Walter Sisulu’s cousin, Evelyn Mase, a nurse. They had two sons, Madiba
Thembekile “Thembi” and Makgatho, and two daughters both called
Makaziwe, the first of whom died in infancy. He and his wife divorced in 1958.

Mandela rose
through the ranks of the ANCYL and through its efforts; the ANC adopted a more
radical mass-based policy, the Programme of Action, in 1949.


On 10 May 1994 he was inaugurated as South Africa’s first democratically
elected President. On his 80th birthday in 1998 he married Graça
Machel, his third wife.

True to his promise, Mandela stepped down in 1999 after one term as
President. He continued to work with the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund he set
up in 1995 and established the Nelson Mandela Foundation and The Mandela Rhodes

Although he presented himself in an autocratic manner in
several speeches, Mandela was a devout believer in democracy and abided by
majority decisions even when deeply disagreeing with them. He had exhibited a
commitment to the values of democracy and human rights since at least the
1960s.  He held a conviction that
“inclusivity, accountability and freedom of speech” were the
fundamentals of democracy,and was driven by a belief in natural and
human rights.

Over the course of his life, Mandela was given over 250
awards, accolades, prizes, honorary degrees and citizenships in recognition of
his political achievements

Mandela was the highest example of democratic leadership
in social movements in this country. His values were solidarity, equality,
respect, tolerance, peace and friendship, and he stood up for these in order to
get reconciliation, democracy, equal citizenry, good quality of life and
improvement of South Africa in terms of public policies, social welfare and
civil rights for all people, without taking into account race, origin or

He provided to world’s inhabitants a way of thinking, a
way of acting, a way of embracing and defending what we wouldn’t want in our
relatives, friends or partners, but around the world. He taught us the idea of
powerful feeling of a country, a nation where the freedoms and duties as
citizens of a state governed by the rule of law were the same for all.