Chapter they show a surprisingly sophisticated understanding

Chapter IIReview of Related LiteratureThis chapter presents the description and review of some literature and research studies that are useful and relevant to provide essential insights in the development of this study.Writing Writing is defined by Marcus (1992) as  humankind’s principal technology for collecting, manipulating, storing, retrieving, communicating, and disseminating information, writing may have been invented independently three times in different parts of the world.Schmandt and Besserat (1992) stated that the artifacts mostly geometry forms such as cones, spheres, disk, cylinder and avoids, are recovered in archaeological sites dating 8000-3000 BC, the tokens are used as counters to keep track of goods, where the earliest code a system of signs for transmitting information, each token shape was semantic, referring to a particular unit of merchandise. For example, a cone and a sphere stood respectively for a small and a large measure of gain and avoids represented jars of oil. Schmandt-Besserat (1996) also stated that the repertory of some three hundred types of counters made it feasible to manipulate and store information on multiple categories of goods, the direct antecedent of the Mesopotamian script was recording device consisting of clay tokens of multiple shapes.As to the study of C. Pontecorvo, M. Orsolini, B. Burge, LB. Resnick 2014 writing has emerged as a central aspect of becoming literate. Research in cognitive psychology has shown that writing is a highly complex activity involving a degree of planning unknown in everyday conversational uses of language. Furthermore, developmental studies revealed that, when young children are asked to write, they show a surprisingly sophisticated understanding of the representational constraints of alphabetic writing systems and they show this understanding long before they can read the conventional writing on their own. Acquisition of WritingAcquisition of writing does not begin with the inscription of letters or whole sentences, but instead, it starts with the movements that imitate writing which children already learned in preschool. From the first time, they hold a pencil to compose a single line until they learned how to write the alphabet herewith the other macro skills concur to produce complex knowledge. Sonia Kandel and Cyril Perret 2015 studied how the interaction between spelling does and motor processes build up during writing acquisition? The operation levels involved in writing focused either on spelling or motor production. Even so, these processes interact and can’t be studied unlink to each other. The research scrutinizes how the interaction between spelling and motor processing confect during writing acquisition.   According to E. Ekholm, S. Zumbrunn, and M. DeBusk-Lane 2017, writing attitude have the potential to influence a variety of writing outcomes as to what attitude in writing signifies. In the present study, the author systematically reconsiders writing attitude research in between 1990 to 2017. Based on the result of the review, the authors offer suggestions in making inferences and conclusion from studies of writing attitudes. As to the study of Annika Agelii Genlott and Ake Gronlund (2013), learning to read and write is a basic skill that unfortunately not everybody acquires sufficiently. Some reasons are lack of teachers and time, the enormous rise in informational activities due to the Internet and other technology-enabled opportunities have made literacy skills increasingly important to people and it only means that literacy education must be improved so that more children will get better chances. In order to contribute to developing better methods for learning to read and write in early years this study tests, a new method developed to improve reading by writing texts at an early age.Macro SkillsStephen D. Krashen, 2017 attempts to review the arguments of supporting hypothesis whether we acquire advanced skills in composition primarily in reading, specifically by self-motivated reading for interest and or pleasure. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the simple hypothesis that reading and instruction or practice make different sorts of contributions to the development of writing skills. Stephen D. Krashen (2017) also studied the role of input (Reading) and instruction in developing writing ability.  The researcher attempts to review the arguments of supporting hypothesis whether we acquire advanced skills in composition primarily in reading, specifically by self-motivated reading for interest and or pleasure. This apparent contradiction is resolved by the simple hypothesis that reading and instruction or practice make different sorts of contributions to the development of writing skills.Anindya Syam Chouldhury, Ph.D., 2013 stated that the four core language skills are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Writing is considered to be the most difficult skill for the second language to master. And the main reason for this difficulty is the fact that writing is a very complex process which involves both creating and organizing ideas, translating them into cohesive texts that are readable. This research takes up the issue which begins with a few introductory remarks on the teaching of English language.The study of Richard Pesik, April 2010 focusses on how the students improve their performance and writing skills by using photography, auto photography and music. The researcher deals with the use of several media like photography, auto photography and music in improving the writing skill of a student. He also emphasizes that media do not only help students to improve their writings but will also increase their interest in creative writing. He then believed that songs and photography has a big influence on the students’ moods of writing. With this regards, the researchers sought to answer whether the other four macro-skills has a contribution in the acquisition of writing of the students.      This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of using a blended learning program on developing the writing skills of tenth grader’s in Palestine. The findings revealed that there were significant differences in the mean scores of the test favour to the experimental group. Authors also recommended that education stakeholders should adopt the blend learning program in teaching writing.