CHAPTER sea are usually in the form



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It’s been many years people are not concerned about
marine pollution. Because of the abundance of sea water volume, and its ability
to dilute any kind of foreign substance which almost has no impact at all makes
sea considered as disposal of waste.

However, this mindset started to changed. It caused
because of the waste which dumped into the sea become more and more in high
concentrations, so as a result of environmental pollution at local scale
occurs. When the sewage out to Sea continuously done, so it probably caused the
global impact of pollution of the sea. According to law No. 32 of the year 2009
on the protection and management of the environment article 1 paragraph (14)
mention: Environmental Pollution is entering or incorporating living things,
substances, energy, and other components into the environment by human
activities so as to go beyond the raw quality of the environment that has been

While the pollution at sea are usually in the form of
plastic that does not decompose. The amount of this waste is getting
increasingly large, and until now unknown certainly impact the environment in
the long term, in addition to its aesthetic impact of the obvious disadvantage.
Other marine pollution also occurs from exile a chemical factory dumped waste
into the river and flow into the sea. Water pollution of the sea needs to be
controlled because of the pollution of the water can reduce the utilization of
water as the basic capital and the main factors of development. Besides the
pollution of the sea that are not addressed can lead to loss of biodiversity as
well as the contamination of fish. When the polluted fish eaten by humans, then
the men will be affected is feared as a pain and so on.


1.2 Formulation Of The Problem

1. What is the meaning of waste pollution?  

2. What are the factors and the  impact of pollution and liquid waste?

3. How to cope with the pollution?


1.3 Research

1. Knowing the sense of waste pollution.

2. Find out the causes and consequences of water

3. Knowing how to cope 
the pollution of liquid waste.

1.4 Benefits

1. To find out the factors that cause pollution of
liquid waste on the environment.

2. To provide awareness to us how important
maintaining and nurturing environment.



Understanding Liquid Waste

Wastes are substances or waste materials resulting
from the process of human activities. Waste can be a pile of used items, the
rest of the animal waste, plant, or vegetables. The balance of the environment
be interrupted if the number of results exceeds the exile threshold tolerance
environment. While the liquid waste is any kind of waste that takes the form of
a liquid, changed the water with other waste materials are well mixed
(suspended) or dissolved in the water. Types of source based on distinguished
liquid waste into liquid waste household and industrial liquid waste.

2.2 Content
of chemical substances in the liquid waste

The main components of the liquid waste is water (99%)
while other components are solid materials which depend the origin (the exile.
Rustama et. Al, 1998). These include the following chemical substances:

1. Anion
Surfactants (detergents)

2. The anion
Surfactants-salt from sulfonat or long chain of sodium sulphate (R.S.O.3-

Na+ and ROSO3-Na+).

3. Sodium
sulfate (detergent additives that do not have the ability to increase the power


4. Enzyme,
Borax, Sodium chloride, Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC)

5. Pesticides

6. Phenol
waste water in agriculture

7. B3 as,
Cr, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, and Zn


2.3 Dangers
of Liquid Waste

1. Impact On

Liquid waste may causes disseas. Potential health
hazards that could be posed include diarrhea and skin disease. Metal Pb (Lead)
and Hg (mercury) which is a type of pollutants in the sea, in addition to
lowering the quality and productivity of the sea waters, can also cause
poisoning, because elements of Hg and Pb is dangerous metals that can cause
disease in humans if it accumulates in the aquatic organisms that eat humans.
Other industrial waste that is generally lost to the river and flowed into the
sea or were directly lost to sea will accumulate. In a certain amount that
exceeds the power capacity of asimilatif waters, these contaminants will be the
stench arising from the mud.  

2. The Impact On
The Environment

The liquid waste that goes into the river will pollute
the water so  it will make the river
contains virus-viral disease. A variety of fish can die that maybe it will
become extinct. Human who eat the fish and using water for daily activities
will be affected by the waste both directly and indirectly. In addition to
polluting the environment, the water also cause flooding due to many people who
dispose of household waste into the river, so water clogged doors and when rainy
season the water cannot flow and water rose inundate houses, so it can be
unsettling the inhabitants. Liquid waste can also lead to the pollution of fresh
water and make biota on the sea extinct..

2.4 Marine

The ecosystem is an ecological system formed by the
indissoluble relationship of reciprocity between the living beings with their
environment. The ecosystem is arguably also a unitary whole order and
thoroughly between all elements of the environment are mutually influenced each
other or the mutual relations between them all. Marine ecosystems or marine
ecosystems is also called ecosystem found in the
waters of the ocean ecosystem, consisting of deep water, shallow sand beach
ecosystems/bitarol, and tidal ecosystem. Based on the distance from the coast
and its depth ekosistem is divided into four, namely:

1. Tidal Area

areas are areas directly bordering on the ground. Solar radiation, variation of
temperature and salinity influence more meaningful for this area compared to
other sea areas. Biota that lived in this area include: algae which live as
trepang, bentos, sea animals, shrimp, crabs, marine worms.

2.  Limneitik

The area of
shallow sea area is neritik, this area can still light penetrated to the
bottom, the depth of this region can achieve 200 m. Biota that lived in this
area are plankton, benthos and nekton, neston

3.  Batial Area

This area
has a depth between 200-2000 m, there is no manufacturer. Hewannya form of

4. Abisal Area

The area is
an area of the sea abisal depth more than 2000 m. area is dark all the time,
there was no manufacturer.

2.5 The
Impact Of Liquid Waste Against The Marine Ecosystem

The government as against the welfare of its people have
a great responsibility to think and realize the formation of suistainable environment.
Government has also made a strict rules concerning the procedures for the
management and processing of liquid waste, as it has been set up in some government
regulation among  Government Regulation
number 18 Year 1999 about Processing hazardous materials and toxic waste, Law no. 4 of 1982, regulates the Basic Provisions of Environmental Managemen, and RI Government Regulation no. 24 of 1986, on AMDAL
(Environmental Impact Analysis). But perpetrators of waste management
is still a lot that has not been held accountable. But the regulation can not
implemented succesfully because, its difiicult for government to observe all
company in Indonesia and how its company process their waste.

The main components of the liquid waste is water (99%)
while other components are solid materials which depend the origin (Rustama et.
Al, 1998). The chemical substances contained in the waste liquid among them is
the anion surfactants (detergents), surfactants anion salts of long chain
sulfonat or sulfate of sodium (R.S.O.3-Na+ and
ROSO 3 – Na+) and sodium sulfate (detergent
additives that do not have the ability to increase the power washing). These
substances can impact badly on ecosystems in the sea. Components that are
experiencing the effects of these substances are:

1. Coral Reefs

Coral is the deposition of lime substance metabolism
results from thousands of coral animals. In the coral rock, there are thousands
of animals that live in the corals in a small gap called a polyp. This
miniscule shape coral animals and predation activities against various other
organisms micro drift at night. Coral reefs grow and develop very
slowly. The animals
that this coral Zooxanthellae algae with the symbiotes. This Algae give shades
against the reef. One of the liquid waste pollution impact against the coral
reefs that can be seen is the color change on the network of coral from natural
color is served or greeny becomes pale white color.


(Picture of
a healthy Reef and coral grey hair)

bleaching can lead to coral death. Occasion bleaching is often linked with
environmental nuisances such as the rise in the temperature of the sea water.
Because corals play an important role as the framework of the formation of
coral reefs and coral islands, coral reef organisms and fisheries also relies
heavily on his life a healthy reef.

2.  Sea life

Sea life is
all the living creatures that are in
the sea either animals or plants or corals. In general the sea life is divided into three major
groups namely plankton, nekton and bentos. This apportionment is has no relation to the
scientific classification, size, animals or plants, but based on the habits of
life in general, as motion of walking, living patterns and distribution
according to ecology. The impact the pollution would affect the quality of
the waters decline, so will interfere with the process of biology or Physiology
of marine organisms. And thus will cause death and ultimately lower the
population and biodiversity. 

3. Seaweed

Seaweed is a
type of algae. Seaweed does not have roots, stems, and leaves but have
chlorophyll as well as land plants. Seaweed is macro algae plant whose life at
sea that does not have the correct root, stem, and leaf and on the basis of the
aquatic life in general and attached to the substrate. Seaweed called plants
because photosynthetic chlorophyll has so skewed. The function of root, stem,
and leaf pda seaweed replaced thailus, that absorb nutrients. Seaweed
contaminated waste can decrease quality and disrupt ecosystems. However, that
is not less dangerous is the existence of a risk of pollution of heavy metals
like arsenic and mercury that can cause disease in humans if eaten and
accumulate in the body.

Chapter III



1. Waste as
a result of an activity and the production process, both on the scale of the
mining industry, as well as household scale, capable of damaging the stability
of ecosystems, pollute the environment and giving life to the disease-causing

2. Chemical
compounds contained in the waste is very dangerous to human health. That’s
necessary for  processing the waste or
recycling as a way to decreases the risk of environmental pollution.


3.2 Advice

household waste inorganic type should were able to be processed again, though
with a simple. As well as implementing the placement of waste (garbage) with
the appropriate kind, whether organic or inorganic waste, to make it more easy
to recycle.