Chapter are provided by the end user

Chapter 6: Research Methodology and Analysis

6.1. Research
Methodology

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The outcome of this research is based on a mixture
of independent research and survey inputs from a various organization that has been
conducted while evaluating enterprise architecture tool for their
organizations. Initially, an extensive research has been done on surveys and
only then has chosen Gartner Peer Insight as these ratings are provided by the
end user at different levels of IT Professionals.

The
primary objective was to achieve the magnitude of the present enterprise
architecture management tool which delivers the solution and facilitates to
describe, evaluate and illustrate current metrics. Moreover, the survey also
captures vendor information about the tool. 
Apart from survey design, they also executed a pre-test which consists
of question that needs to be completed. Answered questionnaires where augmented
with collaborative feedback and suggestions. There was a stipulated time
allotted to access questionnaires to tool vendors.

The
secondary objective of this research is to obtain to which extent does
knowledge management process facilitates enterprise architecture tools in
capturing, decision-making and visualization of architecture, in accordance to
the results we shall evaluate and demonstrate Enterprise Architecture
management tool. Gartner Peer insight
is an interface that acts as a platform and provides ratings and reviews. In
this type of survey, reviews are verified and well established through vendor
assessment, comprehensive reviews from experts and reliable peer reviews.

6.2 Survey Design

Hauder, et.al., 2013 mentions in his article that there were 43
Enterprise architecture management tool (EAM) applicants who were using survey
tool materials that are available widely on internet search engine. As in July
2013, vendors were identified and contacted by phone and mail by inviting them
to complete a comprehensive questionnaire that was given by Gartner (Bittler, R. S. (2012). Altogether, they
have sent around 1100 survey invitation by email. Expert’s mail recipients list
was gathered from the past where there was an enterprise architecture
management project that was initiated with partners in the industry from last 8
years. Electronic reminders were sent one week before survey closure. Later on,
preliminary results were documented to analyze the result from data collected.

For this research, we will be using
Gartner Peer Insights review (Garter Peer
Insight Review Website) that has provided vendors who completed
questionnaires for Gartner Assessment questionnaire

As referenced by
Gartner Peer Insights

We use Kiviat diagram approach to
evaluate the survey rating based on the questionnaire that was sent to various
departments who were involved from different locations for example,
Asia/Pacific, North America, Europe, Middle East and Africa.

Gartner
Peer Insight is a platform for reviewing and rating that are verified by
Gartner analysts that are provided by professionals and experts.  These reviews are assessed based on criteria
that meet Peer Insights standards, quality and relevancy. As per survey
mentioned literature review is comprise five sections (Garter Peer Insight Review Website):

1.      Evaluation and Pricing:  In this section, the user has rated their
experience while negotiating contracts with vendors. Evaluation of a tool in is
to understand organization’s requirements. They also rated on best pricing and
flexibility of contract when compared to other tools.

2.      Deployment & Integration: In this section, they
have provided the maximum time of tool deployment and its integration with
other 3rd party resources and how standard API’s help while
integration.

3.      Customer Service: In this section, rating were
provided based on customer service that was provided by tools vendors, its
quality of support, how best it suits in peer user community.

4.      Product Capabilities: In this section, it
details on product or tool capabilities that fit their organization
requirements like data modelling, architecture presentation, user
administrations, how easily it can be configured, what frameworks and standards
are supported by the tool and finally usability of the tool.

5.      Additional Context: In this section, it provides
additional information like a number of users who access information and their
nature of involvement. And the reason behind opting the specified tool and what
essential features of this tool has driven their decision.

6.3 Research Analysis

The main purpose of this analysis is to
capture knowledge and information of current and future circumstances of
enterprise architecture in repositories. In this research we focus on
evaluating different aspects of tools and Dumeez
et.al., 2013, says
that software tools for enterprise architecture can evaluate tools performance
and their factors by developing  Kiviat
diagram. With this diagram, we
can evaluate how flexibly information can be modelled and stored in
repositories, create visualization and considered some of the features as
mentioned in a literature review.

Kiviat Axes are derived from survey question
listed above by Gartner Peer Insights and features. (Matthes, 2014).
Kivit Diagram (Own Image)

Above
diagram, shows different features of Enterprise Architecture Management Tool as
per Gartner’s Peer Insight Survey. These are also called as the dimension which
describes the capabilities of the tool. Every tool is independent based on the
enterprise architecture of the organization. Based on these features or
dimension we will analyze tools that are mentioned in literature review i.e.
Bizz design Enterprise Studio, LeanIX and Planview have been demonstrated its
features and functionalities.

Now, will analyze how enterprise
architecture management tools answer our research questions in Knowledge
Management perspective.

 

 

RQ1. How
does enterprise architecture tool similar to Knowledge Management Systems?

Tseng
& Lee, 2014 refers knowledge
management systems is a tool that stores and retrieves knowledge to improve
business process, operations, and organizational performance And also according
to Denkena et.al., 2007, knowledge management is a process that facilitates technical
capabilities and provides collaboration of knowledge sharing in the organization.
Simon et.al.2014, mentions that
Enterprise Architecture Management tool is used as a model that capture, store,
design and analyze information related to enterprise architecture and
demonstrate to stakeholders. Hullavarad,
et.al., 2015.also says that these enterprise architecture tools support in the
strategic decision by capturing enterprise content, this enterprise content
develops and analyzes capabilities of business, technology, Information and
solution architecture using road maps.

However, Alguezaui
& Filieri, 2014 mentions that an ability to integrate and combine
the captured knowledge of the organization into enterprise model is the current
trend in digitalization. Enterprise architecture model is static in nature
where data becomes permanent once it is stored while Knowledge Management
enhances Enterprise Architecture tool by creating a dynamic model from the EA
repository.  Without the support of
knowledge resources, enterprise architecture model is unable to update the
landscape of application. Nevertheless, in knowledge management data is organized
in a structured format whereas in enterprise architecture data is organized in
the form of the model which builds knowledge in an organization.  Data models are been designed using different
modelling languages like BPMN, UML, ArchiMate etc. In order to transform this
information into knowledge, we need a framework that represents knowledge and
defines types of information that is required to capture and how it is related
to the different domain in enterprise architecture like Business Architecture,
Technology Architecture, Application Architecture and Data architecture. The
data model helps to apply the knowledge in the organization when making a
decision or solution to a problem or enhancing business objectives or meeting
goals.

As mentioned in the literature review, now we
shall evaluate how enterprise tools practice knowledge management in their
organizations.  As mentioned by Lankhorst, 2009, business architecture
is a discipline that has been developed with its own methods and knowledge.
Knowledge is about managing responsibilities that are essential for business
architecture effort. Moran 2015, enterprise architecture
is all about that captures architectural information and communicates using collaboration
tools. As a result, this valuable knowledge enhances the decision making
process at strategic or operational level. And this knowledge needs to be
maintained and managed which makes enterprise architecture tools have a
rigidity while maintaining and managing and flexible while analyzing. Where
this knowledge is been presented and shared with diverse individuals. In our
literature review, we have mentioned that Gartner
Peer Insights has considered few features for his survey and Matthes et.al.,
2014 also mentions same.

·        
Metamodel/Repository: Enterprise architecture metamodel and repository
helps to capture artifacts that are used as groundwork for enterprise
architects to implement (Roth, 2014).
However, France et.al, 2006, said
that knowledge that is captured in repositories as artifacts and is used by
enterprise architects to illustrate application standards and also a
repository. This capability acts like hub for enterprise architecture that
stores and manages Metadata that is needed to support enterprise architect’s
work. However, Thongtanunam, et.al., 2014
mentions that repositories play a vital role in relation between knowledge
management and knowledge visualization tools. In knowledge management, data can
be searched in repositories and retrieved quickly.

·        
Modelling:
Enterprise architecture tools should be a support wide and flexible modelling
capability that shows all viewpoints in architecture viewpoints. As cited by Quartel et.al, 2009 model structure is
needed to specific, documented; communicative that provides the purpose to
achieve goals and objects. However Smiciklas,
2012 says that picture would communicate more than words that connect to
stakeholders. Abdullah et.al., 2002,
knowledge models are used to capture the features of real application by
dividing them into manageable factors which will be easy to understand and
manipulate. Nieves and Haller, 2014
argues that models are associated with the domains in knowledge management.

·        
Framework and Standards: Iyer and
Gottlieb, 2004 mentions that frameworks are important as they provide a
structured methodology and guides enterprise architects to view present and
future architectures. However, Braun and
Winter, 2005 also mentions that some organizations framework is mandatory
and enterprise architecture tool should be capable to support framework.
Eventually, Urbaczewski and Mrdalj 2006
mentions that enterprise architecture framework plans business processes, their
relations, and how they interact to achieve goals and missions of enterprise
architecture.

RQ2. What
are Knowledge Management Processes are used in Enterprise Architecture Tool?

Some of the features of Enterprise architecture
tool integrate knowledge management processes for better performance and
decision-making.

Integration of
Knowledge Management Processes and features of Enterprise Architecture tool
(Various authors as referred in table)

Similarities in Knowledge Management Systems
and Enterprise Architecture Tool (Own Table)

RQ3. How
Knowledge is shared using Enterprise Architecture Tool?

As
mentioned in literature review, collaboration is one of the Knowledge
management approaches where information is exchanged among individuals i.e from
tacit to explicit knowledge. However, Dalkir et.al., 2017 mentions Knowledge Management,
collaboration is knowledge sharing and creation of shared content. Improved
collaboration motivates to have stimulated opportunities for communication in
information technology.

According
to Bente et.al., 2012, in enterprise architecture collaboration provides innovative solution
that is required for current enterprises such as expert’s insight and real-time
experiences. It effectively combines long-term top-down approach with logical
bottom-up thinking and insists on offering real-time solution for
enterprise-wide changes that are been enduring in business. Additionally, every
enterprise architecture tools should possess these features when considering
today’s digital transformation.  As
merely, collaboration is significantly based on notification,
triggering, workflows that are customized and web-based access. Collaboration
is cross-functional feature that helps in enhancing communication, enables
coordination and colloaboration among teams or individuals.

As referred on fuze website

RQ4. What
other parameters to be considered when implementing enterprise architecture
tool in a knowledge management perspective?

Gartner Peer Insights has considered few features
that have been considered in there survey and also Matthes et.al., 2014,
also mentioned about few features or dimensions while considering enterprise
architecture tool and we shall see how these dimension relate to knowledge
management.

·        
Usability:
Usability adds high value and the desired feature for enterprise architecture
tool, irrespective of the complexity of the basic repository/metamodel and
capability of decisions analysis. It should deliver the purpose and should be
easy to use. It should be inbuilt which is easy to understand
and maintain (McGovern, 2004).

·        
Deployment and Integration: Enterprise architecture tool should be easy to
deploy and deployment time should be minimal. Accessibility to integrate 3rd
party resources like integrators, service providers, etc. and current trend of
integration is through REST APIs tool should support this
feature. However, Bahrami et.al, 1998, says that tool is required with a minimal training
that contributes rapidly and reduces cost on training.

·        
Configurability: Configurability
is the initial step-up of the tool, provides customization of
repository/metamodel and other features. 
Every organization has diverse requirements, views and concerns and when
coming to enterprise architecture, so configurability is essential. Buckl et.al., 2012, confirms that configuration should be
customized that can be integrated to suit the present methodology based on the
configuration new process can be defined.

·        
Decision-Making Process: According
to Litvaj and Stancekova, 2015,
decision is based on knowledge that is captured in the enterprise organization.
Updating and maintain knowledge is critical for an enterprise architecture for
making a strategic decision. Decision-making process from current architecture
adds a lot of value to uncertainty as it is positive and effective that aims to
improve process. In enterprise architecture, knowledge management plays a vital
role while making a decision.

 

Knowledge Management in relation to decision-making
process referred by (Hrubizna)

6.4 Analyze Features of Enterprise Architecture Tools

Kiviat Analysis Diagram for 3 Tools
(Own Diagram)

When analyzing above Kiviat diagram, LeanIX and BiZZdesign
have best rating compared to Planview while evaluating enterprise architecture
tool.  So we will be considering only
these two tools for further comparison

Kiviat Analysis Diagram for 2 Tools
(Own Diagram)

When
analyzing the above Kiviat diagram, following facts are evident as per
Knowledge Management perspective

·        
BiZZdesign has strong
decision analysis features as the user has given highest rating for this tools
when compared to LeanIX.

·        
Similarly “Framework”,
“Configurability”, “Modelling” and “Repository/Metamodel” of BiZZdesign have
scored highest rating.

·        
However, LeanIX scores highest rating
with features like “Presentation”, “Administration”, “Usability”, “Ease of
Deployment”, “Service & Support “, “Timeliness of vendors Response” and
“Quality of Technical Support” .

In
spite of above, we have considered LeanIX because of it’s to user flexibility
and as per Knowledge Management perspective as below:

·        
Rubenstein-Montano et.al., 2001 mentions that repositories are
used for storing information which is common feature of Knowledge Management as
mentioned in literature review.

·        
Buckl,
et.al., 2009 mentions, in
the perspective of Enterprise Architecture management,  development of knowledge is referred to
planning and decision activities, where future knowledge of enterprise
architecture is created.

But as a result, all these 3 tools are similar to knowledge management
where Knowledge repositories
are electronic systems or application that captures, structures, and categories
knowledge of organization (Medelyan
et.al., 2013).And Arbab et.al., 2015
mentions that enterprise architecture tools are associated with architecture
layers that complete architecture views of present and future. Indeed, Rodríguez-Elias et.al., 2008 says that
framework in enterprise architecture is used to describe knowledge process flow
which facilitates organizational processes.

As shown below, Gartner
Peer Insight has provided average user satisfaction to LeanIX tool.

Chapter 7: Results

As
mentioned in the literature review, our research is based on TOGAF framework
which is common and most popular enterprise framework that is been considered
as a standard to many organizations. It provides best practices, rules,
principles, guideline and techniques. Implementing TOGAF in a lean way is
difficult as this requires intensive training and effort to maintain. There are
loads and loads of enterprise artifacts that are generated. These artifacts
need to be maintained and to keep it updated an effective EA Repository Expert
is required and this is where LeanIX plays a vital role in storing them. As
part of TOGAF, LeanIX is considered as a knowledge hub for IT transformation
and Business.

Below
is the TOGAF ADM approach implemented in LeanIX

TOGAF (ADM)
with LeanIX (https://www.leanix.net/en/download/webinar-togaf) Webinar

It
is recognized that TOGAF is an iterative enterprise architecture framework that
provides a wide approach to design, plan, implement and govern architecture
capabilities. ADM (Architectural Development Method) is the main keystone of
TOGAF, as it’s a series of the iterative stage where scope, requirements and
milestones are reviewed and considers assets; revalidate scope and requirements
& principles, architecture risk and its milestones.

There
are few iterative sprints considering in TOGAF Enterprise architecture
framework

·        
Capability Sprint

·        
Roadmap

·        
Architecture Project

·        
Data Quality

TOGAF ADM
Iterative as referred by Weisman,
2011

In order to support this iterative sprints and the
volume that is created during this process needs an effective and a dedicated
tool and processes for storing these architecture content.  In TOGAF, architectural repository provides a
structural enterprise framework that supports enterprise to distinguish between
types of asset that exists in different layers of enterprise architecture.
These repositories provide capabilities to link components and architectural
assets that provide design information, deployment and repositories. 

Now we shall see TOGAF repositories that are linked
to LeanIX.

1.     
Metamodel

2.     
Capability

3.     
Landscape

4.     
Information Base

5.     
Governance

6.     
Reference Library

TOGAF enterprise
Architecture Repository as referred by Weisman, 2011

Integration
of Data model in LeanIX for TOGAF artifacts. Data Model creates an easy to
understand presents all areas that are present in enterprise architecture
management as shown below:

6.1 Implement TOGAF with
LeanIX

Further
to our methodology, we shall implement TOGAF in LeanIX. We will be doing this
is a step-to-step process. As mentioned in Literature review, LeanIX is a
strategic and repository for enterprise architecture. There are many tools that
integrate out of box features.

Now
we will see how TOGAF can be implemented in LeanIX:

Step
1: Capturing Architecture Vision
and Requirements in LeanIX:

Phase 1: TOGAF (ADM) with LeanIX (https://www.leanix.net/en/download/webinar-togaf) Webinar

·        
Capturing of statics information into Wiki (for
example, Strategy and Principles, etc)

·        
Collaborative effort – do not write dinosaur or
huge documentation

·        
Make it flexible – referencing items of
Requirements and Architecture vision, etc by using hyperlinking

·        
Capturing business capability which is crucial
to business

Step 2: Capture Capabilities and business services:

Phase 2: TOGAF
(ADM) with LeanIX (https://www.leanix.net/en/download/webinar-togaf) Webinar

Step
3: Mapping of TOGAF Artifacts to Lean Data Model

Phase 3
&4: TOGAF (ADM) with LeanIX (https://www.leanix.net/en/download/webinar-togaf) Webinar

In LeanIX, Fact Sheets are the essential component.
They document information regarding architectural objects such as Business
capabilities, Application, IT components and Data Objects etc and these are
pre-defined.

LeanIX Facts as referred in LeanIX Website (Find Reference)

6.2 Implement LeanIX – Knowledge Management Perspective

 

·        
Data Modelling:  We Identified application or system
attributes that can be mapped to LeanIX data model as shown above.  In LeanIX, information is stored using
factsheets like below

As
above mentioned factsheet is been mapped to the below mentioned Enterprise
Architecture application for a broader view of information related to
application

Mapping
Data Model (Own Image)

·        
After data modelling is done, capture
information from various data sources like Technology Catalogue, information
that is existing with enterprise architecture in excel sheet, Enterprise
Strategy documents, information that is been uploaded by various other teams
and individuals on SharePoint. The application has been identified and
consolidated in a list along with the other application information that is
required to store in enterprise architecture tool.

 

Capturing
applications list from various Data Sources (Own Image)

·        
After data is been processing, now comes
the activities that have been performed to gather the information i.e by
conducting face to face meeting, telephonic conversation, Chat conversation,
reading High-Level documents, Reviewing Blueprints, and Identifying technical
documents of each application that needs to deploy into LeanIX tool.

 

Scale of
activities conducted during deployment of applications in LeanIX (Own Image)

·        
Now, processing data i.e. classifying
data as per Data Model. All the captured information is been consolidate into
excel sheet and then process this information in-to logical Enterprise Asset
Registry which is used as Repository for storing application information.

Enterprise
Assets Repository – Own ImageChapter 8: Conclusion

However, various tool vendors provide a software
solution to manage these repositories. Enterprise architecture management tools
act as knowledge management system for enterprise architects through
documentation, generating reports and stakeholder communication. Current
enterprise architecture is built on the complex structure which is supported by
complicated IT system which integrates with different technologies and
standards.  Hence, modelling supports
multi-layered architecture to capture and communicate in an enterprise which is
basic to develop enterprise performance. This ability of capture, integrate and
maintain enterprise architecture models depends strongly on tool features which
helps enterprise architect’s productivity.