Background corridors. Those living within five kilometers

Background

About
38.8 million people were living with HIV, 2.5 million were newly infected, and 1.2 million HIV/AIDS deaths globally. Of this Sub-Saharan
Africa account 76% (29 million) HIV infected people, 76% (1.9 million) new HIV
infections, and 75% (0.9 million) HIV/AIDS deaths in 2015, which is a greatest
region suffering from burden of HIV infection 1.  Globally, women bear a disproportionate burden
of HIV infection. Ten countries, often in southern and eastern Africa including
Ethiopia (3%), Zambia (4%), Malawi (4%), Uganda (6%), Tanzania (6%), Kenya
(6%), Zimbabwe (6%),Mozambique (6%), Nigeria (13%), South Africa (25%), account
for nearly 80% of all people living with HIV 2.

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In
Ethiopia, 768,040 people presently living with HIV, 39,140 were newly infected,
and 28,650 died due to AIDS in 20151. The
trends in new HIV infections has inflated from 23 000 in 2010 to 30,000 in 2016 in Ethiopia 3. There is large prevalence difference by region
(6.6% in Gambella, 5.0% in Addis Ababa, and 0.7% in Southern Nations,
Nationalities and Peoples’ region). The HIV epidemic in Ethiopia is primarily
associated with areas of urban concentration and proximity to major transport
corridors. Those living within five kilometers of a major road have HIV
prevalence rates that are four-times higher than those who live further away 4.

In sub-Saharan Africa, the main mode of HIV transmission is
through heterosexual sex and in children through vertical transmission. Early
marriage, partner violence, and gender inequality are cited as causes of high
divorce rates and significantly elevated rates of HIV prevalence associated
with divorce and remarriage 4. The disproportionately
high HIV prevalence throughout the region suggests the lack of appropriate
interventions to protect young women 2. Furthermore, marked male female
differences in sexual debut, age disparate sex, multiple partners, low condom
use and sexually transmitted infections contribute to adolescent girls and
young women’s vulnerability to HIV 5.

HIV/AIDS
disclosure is an important because of the multiple benefits for HIV infected
individuals, their partners and the community as a whole in
HIV/AIDS prevention interventions 6, 7. HIV
serostatus disclosure among couples is encouraged as it promotes safer sexual
behaviours, lowers HIV transmission, decreases stigma and recommends access to testing
and treatment, care and support, PMTCT and it can encourage partners to make
informed reproductive health options 8, 9, 10.

Yet,
Southwest district is not likely other part of Ethiopia
because it involved different ethnic populations and refugee camp, and adds lots
of HIV positive patients attending ART clinic in Jimma town public health facilities
which provide accommodation for southwest area.
Also, Jimma town is nearby Gambella state which is a small and sparsely populated region that
has the highest regional HIV prevalence. Still, the rise of the new HIV
infections epidemic in Ethiopia is broadly documented. For that reason, our
study included all three ART clinics of Jimma town public health institutions that
provide
ART services for southwest district as result generalizability of results was
stronger and it also added the current frequency of HIV status disclosure in
study area. Therefore, this study was conducted to measure the prevalence of
HIV status disclosure and its influencing factors among HIV positive women
attending ART services in Jimma town public health institution, Ethiopia.