Abstract not necessarily all of the following

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a chronic
disease that requires lifelong treatment. Contrary to the popular belief,
schizophrenia is not a divided personality or multiple personality disorder.
The word schizophrenia which means “divided mind” refers to a separation of the
normal balance of emotions and thinking. People with this illness have changes
in their behavior and other symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations that
last for more than six months. In general, with failure in work, school, and
social functioning. Psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, are a group of
serious illnesses that affect the mind. These diseases impair a person’s
ability to think clearly, make good judgments, respond emotionally, communicate
effectively, understand reality, and behave appropriately. When symptoms are
severe, people with psychotic disorders have difficulty staying in touch with
reality and often are not able to meet the ordinary demands of everyday life.
However, even severe psychotic disorders are generally treatable. People with
psychotic disorder have sudden short periods of psychotic behavior, often in
response to a stressful event, such as death in the family.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Schizophrenia also called dementia praecox. A
severe mental disorder characterized by some, but not necessarily all of the
following features: emotional blunting, intellectual deterioration, social
isolation, disorganized speech and behavior, delusions, and hallucinations. A
state characterized by the coexistence of contradictory or incompatible
elements.

Two
changes were made to DSM-IV Criterion A for schizophrenia. The first change is
the elimination of the special attribution of bizarre delusions and Schneideran
first-rank auditory hallucinations. The second change is the addition of a
requirement in Criterion A that the individual must have at least one of these
three symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech. At least
one of these core “positive symptoms” is necessary for a reliable diagnosis of
schizophrenia (2013 American Psychiatric Association).

History

            Schizophrenia is a
chronic, severe and disabling brain disorder that has affected people
throughout history. About 1 percent of Americans have it. Often, people with
this disorder hear voices that others do not hear or think others can read
their mind, control their thoughts, or are plotting to harm them. And this may
terrorize them and make them easily withdrawn and irritable people. People with
schizophrenia may talk nonsense, can sit for hours without moving or speaking
and may even seem to feel perfectly fine until it comes to expressing what they
are really thinking. Also their family and social life are affected by
schizophrenia, as many people suffering from this disease have difficulty
holding a job or caring for them, making them always depend on others.

Causes

            Experts say there are several factors that cause
schizophrenia. The main factors involved in the onset and development of this
disease are:

Genetic predisposition: the
presence of the disease in parents or close relatives (uncles, cousins,
grandparents, etc.) is a factor that increases the possibility of occurrence in
children. Alterations during pregnancy or birth: anoxia (lack of oxygen to the
fetus during pregnancy or childbirth), viral infections, trauma, and so on.
Morphological, functional or biochemical changes in the brain: This section
plays a fundamental role habitual substance abuse and exposure to certain toxic
and environmental stressors. There are especially two substances involved in
the communication between neurons to the brain dopamine and serotonin. Failure
of treatment once diagnosed disease: a high risk of relapses.

Schizophrenia is not related to
situations of low enrollment or childhood trauma, and certainly no blame for
their appearance.

Positive
and Negative Symptoms

            Positive symptoms are psychotic behaviors not seen in
healthy people. People with positive symptoms often lose touch with reality.
These symptoms may come and go, sometimes are intense and sometimes almost
imperceptible; depending on whether the individual is receiving treatment or
not. Positive symptoms include: Hallucinations, which are things a person can
see, hear, smell or feel that no one else can see them, hear them, smell them
or feel them. The “voices” are the most common type of hallucination
associated with schizophrenia. Delusions are false beliefs that are not part of
the culture of the person and remain firm. The person believes delusions even
after other people will show that they are not real and logical. Thought
disorders are unusual or dysfunctional ways of thinking. A form of this
disorder is disorganized thinking, which occurs when a person has difficulty organizing
his thoughts or connecting them in a logical sequence. Movement disorders can
manifest as agitated body movements. A person with this disorder may repeat
certain motions over and over again.

            Negative symptoms are associated with disruption of normal
emotions and behaviors. These symptoms are harder to recognize as part of this
disorder, as is often mistaken for depression or other conditions. People with
negative symptoms need help with daily tasks, often to neglect basic personal
hygiene. This can make them seem lazy people or people who do not want to get
ahead, but in reality are the symptoms of schizophrenia. Cognitive symptoms are
more subtle. As negative symptoms, these symptoms are difficult to recognize as
part of this disorder, often only detected when testing for other reasons.
Usually cognitive symptoms make it difficult to lead a normal life and living.
They can cause great emotional distress.

Different
types of schizophrenia

            Paranoid-type schizophrenia is characterized by delusions
and auditory hallucinations (hearing voices that don’t exist) but relatively
normal intellectual functioning and expression of emotions. The delusions can
often be about being persecuted by a person or an organization, or feeling
harassed or treated unfairly. People with paranoid-type schizophrenia can
exhibit anger, aloofness, anxiety, and can be argumentative.

`           Disorganized-type schizophrenia is characterized by speech
and behavior that are disorganized or difficult to understand, and flattening
or inappropriate emotions. People with disorganized-type schizophrenia may
laugh inappropriately for no apparent reason, make illogical statements, or
seem preoccupied with their own thoughts or perceptions.  Their disorganized behavior may disrupt
normal activities, such as showering, dressing, and preparing meals.

Undifferentiated-type
schizophrenia is characterized by some symptoms seen in all of the above types,
but not enough of any one of them to define it as another particular type of
schizophrenia.

Residual-type
schizophrenia is characterized by a past history of at least one episode of
schizophrenia, but the person currently has no “positive” symptoms
(such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or behavior). It may
represent a transition between a full-blown episode and complete remission, or
it may continue for years without any further psychotic episodes (2013 Joseph
Goldberg, MD).

Preventions

            There is no sure way to prevent schizophrenia. However,
early treatment can help keep symptoms under control before serious
complications and can help improve long-term prognosis. In continuation, the
treatment plan can help prevent relapse or worsening of symptoms of
schizophrenia. In addition, researchers hope to learn more about the risk
factors for schizophrenia, which can in turn lead to early diagnosis and
treatment.

Treatment

            As yet the causes of
schizophrenia are not known, treatments concentrate on trying to eliminate the
symptoms of the disease. These include antipsychotic medications and various
psychosocial treatments. Psychosocial treatments can help people with
schizophrenia who are already stabilized with antipsychotic medication.
Psychosocial treatments help these patients with the daily challenges of the
disease, such as difficulty in communication, self-care, work and establishing
and maintaining relationships. In addition to psychosocial treatments in the
treatment of schizophrenia should emphasize rehabilitation, family education,
and cognitive behavioral therapy and self-help groups.

Tips
or suggestions on how to overcome the disorders

To
overcome the current crisis, recourse to the people and tools that are
available to you. People with schizophrenia may get help from professional
caregivers and case managers in day or residential programs. Although, family
members are usually the primary caregivers.

Parenting
skills to help the individuals

            People who deal with
these mental health problems may also have children to care for. Due to
illness, parenting skills may be underdeveloped or adversely affected. In an
innovative program of Australia, occupational therapists perform a program of
open-ended group for people with mental health problems who have young
children. Through discussion, education, child observation and practical
experience, these individuals are helped to develop their parenting skills. In
addition, guest speakers from community agencies introduce these parents to
other valuable community services. To date, feedback from participants was very
positive.

Evidence-based
therapies for Schizophrenia

            Many patients with schizophrenia
have psychological distress and receive some form of psychotherapy. Several
different psychotherapeutic approaches for schizophrenia have been developed
and studied. Of these approaches, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has the
strongest evidence base and has shown benefit for symptom reduction in
outpatients with residual symptoms. In addition to CBT, other approaches
include compliance therapy, personal therapy, acceptance and commitment
therapy, and supportive therapy. Although usually studied as distinct
approaches, these therapies overlap with each other in their therapeutic
elements. Psychotherapy for schizophrenia continues to evolve with the recent
advent of such approaches as meta-cognitive therapy, narrative therapies, and
mindfulness therapy. Future research may also consider three different goals of
psychotherapy in this patient population: to provide emotional support, to
enhance functional recovery, and to alter the underlying illness process.