1.1 Result of Students’ Attitude toward L1, L2, L3
Concerning the ?rst research question, the result of descriptive analysis shows that the overall percentage of Students’ attitude toward three languages, L1 as their mother tongue, L2 (Bahasa Indonesia) and L3 (English) can be seen from the table below:
When I hear a friend in my class speaking L1/L2/L3 well, I like to practice talking with him
Learning L1/L2/L3 helps me improve my personality
I like to practice L1/L2/L3 as do native speakers
I do not relax when I have to speak L1/L2/L3
I feel shy to speak English in front of other students.
The L1/L2/L3 subject has content that covers many areas of knowledge
In my opinion, people who speak more than one language have a very wide knowledge
I have more knowledge and more understanding when learning to use L1/L2/L3
I learned English just to pass the exam
I cannot apply L1/L2/L3 conversations in everyday life
I prefer to learn my native language rather than other foreign languages
I feel proud while studying L1/L2/L3
I do not feel anxious when I have to answer questions in L1/L2/L3
Learning foreign languages is enjoyable
Learning English makes me feel more confident
A majority of students stated that they like to learn English especially in the way a native speaker does. They also interest to learn different L1 (mother tongue) with their friends for instance like learning Javanese, Sudanese, etc. because of its unique. It can be seen from the percentage 32% for L1 and L2. Meanwhile, for learning L2 (Bahasa), the mean score got the lowest score between L1 and L2 (28%) because they think that acquiring bahasaindonesia as a second language can be done unconsciously. They prefer to learn various languages which have not been known yet. However, it can apparently be said that the Students have positive behavioral attitudes toward L1 and English language. In other words, they have a hopeful on learning English and L1 in outside school hours.
Statements 11–15 obtained respondents’ positive and negative cognitive attitudes toward learning L1/L2/L3 with the mean percentage for them are L1 (32%), L2 (35%), L3 (31%). Most of the students opined that they enjoy learning L1, L2, and English, not just for passing their exams. Interestingly, all respondents agree that more knowledge, information, understanding, and help with other subjects are possible with learning L1, L2 and English. It is apparent from the data of the table that the respondents recognize the importance of learning L1, L2, and L3 in the area of communicating actively. This is indeed an expression of positive cognitive attitudes of the respondents toward L1 , L2 and L3.
The mean percentage for the emotional aspects are L1 (36%), L2 (37%) , L3 (37%) which means that most students have good emotions/feelings, high importance, more proud, enjoinment, and con?dent toward L2 (Bahasa Indonesia) and L3 (English) rather than their L1 , but it still concerns that studyingL1 is enjoyable and interesting for them. In conclusion, the majority of them, showed good and positive emotions/feelings to learning L1, L2 and L3.
1.2 Result of Students’ Language Practice (outside the school hours)
Which languages do you like more, L1, L2 or L3?
Honestly, I prefer to choose English that I like most because by mastering English well we can communicate with many people in the world.
English because sometimes we look cool when speak English
Actually I like English and Arabic because help me to speak with foreign people
Which language is easier? L1,L2,L3?
Of course it is my mother tongue, because I can speak it without learning
BahasaIndonesia , because I am from Java so my mother tongue is Javanese and it has different structure for different people. So bahasa Indonesia is easiest one. And English is quite difficult.
Bahasa Indonesia because we use it in learning process every day.
What language do you usually use outside the school hours?
Sometimes English, sometimes bahasa. We are forced to speak English rather than bahasa but If I confused and there is no ustazd/ustadzah who look at me, I prefer to use bahasa with my friend
Honestly bahasa, because it is really difficult to speak English. If no one knows I used bahasa but if I speak with ustad/ustadzah sometimes I used English
Bahasa , because when I try to speak English all the time sometimes my friend tease me by saying “gayamuinggrisan”. So if there is no teacher I speak bahasa
Where do you usually use English outside the school hours?
When I am in school like in the musholla, canteen and corridor of this Islamic boarding school
In the classroom, in the canteen
To whom do you usually use English?
My ustad/ustadzah and my roommate
My roommate, my teacher
All friends and teachers
The interview result was taken from the students’ level which can be seen from their achievement in English conversation class. The Result establishes the finding that the students were interested to use English in their daily life especially outside the school hours. However, most of them use English if there is a teacher (ustad/ustadzah) around them. If there is no teacher (ustad/ustadzah), they prefer to choose Bahasa to communicate with others secretly. It means that, although they have a positive attitude toward English their acts do the opposite which can be seen from their daily life of how they implement their attitude toward English.
1.3 Result of The Correlation between Students’ Attitude and Students’ Achievement
The researcher took the score of students’ attitude (variable X) by using 15 items questionnaire toward L3 (English) and students’ learning achievement (variable Y) by using conversation English scores in final test at the first semester and those scores were analyzed.
To know whether there is any significant correlation or not between X variable and Y variable, the researcher formulated HI (Alternative Hypothesis) and Ho (Null Hypothesis) first as follows:
a. Ha : “there is a positive correlation which significant between X variable (attitude) and Y variable (learning achievement)”
b. Ho : “there is no positive correlation which significant between X variable (attitude) and Y variable (learning achievement)”
Some Assumptions are as follows:
a) If the result of calculation rxy is smaller than Tt (t table), rxy
From the calculation Pearson’s Product moment correlation above, the researcher got the result from rxy = 0.532 (it is between 0.40 – 0.70). According to simple interpretation, There is an enough correlation between X variable and Y variable. Thus, we can interpret that there is a positive correlation between attitude (as X variable) and learning achievement (as Y variable).
The Test of Hypothesis
After calculating rxy, the result of rxy is 0.532. The researcher determine degree of freedom (df) to get Tt (T table). df = N-nr = 20–2 = 18. After looking at the table, df (18) get significance 5% is 0.468 and get significance 1% is 0.590. The researcher concluded thatrxy is bigger than tt or rxy>tt = 0.532> 0.468 , so that the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected (Ha is accepted).
The Interpretation of Data
From the correlation computation, we can interpret that there is a positive correlation between attitude (as X variable) and learning achievement (as Y variable). From the calculation Pearson’s Product moment correlation above, the writer got the result from rxy = 0.532. According to simple interpretation above, we know that “there is a positive correlation which significant between X variable (attitude) and Y variable (learning achievement)”
The ?nding was recorded that most of students more positive attitude toward learning English in all three aspects of behavioral, cognitive, and emotional toward learning English just in line with Shams (2008) and (Kara, 2009)where the students have positive attitude, it becomes the good beginning for the learning and teaching process. However, students who has positive attitude do the opposite of their language practice in daily life. It can be seen from their attitude when outside the school hour, the students have to speak English to communicate with others but they did not do that. Students will only speak English outside the school hour if there is a teacher around them. If there is not, they prefer to use L2 (Bahasa).
Moreover, Based on data analysis by SPSS calculations, the correlation is significant at the 0.532 level, it can be said that the two variables are attitudes and learning achievement have a positive correlation between students’ learning motivation and learning achievement in English. These ?ndings is in line with the reports given by (Gitawaty, 2010) who found there is strong correlation between students’ attitude and their achievement. Thus, in this study students with negative attitude will get lower score in English achievement and the students with positive attitude will get higher score in English achievement.
Based on the discussion of theoretical research data on The Students’ Attitude toward L1, L2, L3, and Their Language Practice, the researcher will conclude as follows:
1. Based on the results of questionnaire aimed at students MACI AmanatulUmmah Surabaya obtained the positive attitude toward L1 as their mother tongue, L2 as Bahasa Indonesia and English as the target language in behavior, cognitive and emotional aspects of attitude. Among three languages they have higher positive value in English.
2. Based on the results of interview, the students who has positive attitude toward English do the opposite in their acts. They speak English outside the school hours to communicate with other if there is teacher around them. If there is no teacher, they prefer to use Bahasa (L2).
3. There is a correlation between students’ attitude (X variable) and the students’ achievement (Y variable) with asignificance test 0.532 level.